Identifying ketamine responses in treatment-resistant depression using a wearable forehead EEG
Cao, Z and Lin, C-T and Ding, W and Chen, M-H and Li, C-T and Su, T-P, Identifying ketamine responses in treatment-resistant depression using a wearable forehead EEG, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 66, (6) pp. 1668-1679. ISSN 0018-9294 (2019) [Refereed Article]
This study explores responses to ketamine in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) using a wearable forehead electroencephalography (EEG) device. We recruited and randomly assigned 55 outpatients with TRD into three approximately equal-sized groups (A: 0.5-mg/kg ketamine; B: 0.2-mg/kg ketamine; and C: normal saline) under double-blind conditions. The ketamine responses were measured by EEG signals and Hamilton depression rating scale scores. At baseline, the responders showed significantly weaker EEG theta power than the non-responders (p < 0.05). Compared to the baseline, the responders exhibited higher EEG alpha power but lower EEG alpha asymmetry and theta cordance post-treatment (p < 0.05). Furthermore, our baseline EEG predictor classified the responders and non-responders with 81.3 ± 9.5% accuracy, 82.1 ± 8.6% sensitivity, and 91.9 ± 7.4% specificity. In conclusion, the rapid antidepressant effects of mixed doses of ketamine are associated with prefrontal EEG power, asymmetry, and cordance at baseline and early post-treatment changes. Prefrontal EEG patterns at baseline may serve as indicators of ketamine effects. Our randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study provides information regarding the clinical impacts on the potential targets underlying baseline identification and early changes from the effects of ketamine in patients with TRD.