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Strong trans-Pacific break and local conservation units in the Galapagos shark (Carcharhinus galapagensis) revealed by genome-wide cytonuclear markers


Pazmino, DA and Maes, GE and Green, ME and Simpfendorfer, CA and Hoyos-Padilla, EM and Duffy, CJA and Meyer, CG and Kerwath, SE and Salinas-de-Leon, P and van Herwerden, L, Strong trans-Pacific break and local conservation units in the Galapagos shark (Carcharhinus galapagensis) revealed by genome-wide cytonuclear markers, Heredity, 120, (5) pp. 407-421. ISSN 0018-067X (2018) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

© The Genetics Society 2018

DOI: doi:10.1038/s41437-017-0025-2


The application of genome-wide cytonuclear molecular data to identify management and adaptive units at various spatio-temporal levels is particularly important for overharvested large predatory organisms, often characterized by smaller, localized populations. Despite being "near threatened", current understanding of habitat use and population structure of Carcharhinus galapagensis is limited to specific areas within its distribution. We evaluated population structure and connectivity across the Pacific Ocean using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (~7200 SNPs) and mitochondrial control region sequences (945 bp) for 229 individuals. Neutral SNPs defined at least two genetically discrete geographic groups: an East Tropical Pacific (Mexico, east and west Galapagos Islands), and another central-west Pacific (Lord Howe Island, Middleton Reef, Norfolk Island, Elizabeth Reef, Kermadec, Hawaii and Southern Africa). More fine-grade population structure was suggested using outlier SNPs: west Pacific, Hawaii, Mexico, and Galapagos. Consistently, mtDNA pairwise ΦST defined three regional stocks: east, central and west Pacific. Compared to neutral SNPs (FST = 0.023–0.035), mtDNA exhibited more divergence (ΦST = 0.258–0.539) and high overall genetic diversity (h = 0.794 ± 0.014; π = 0.004 ± 0.000), consistent with the longstanding eastern Pacific barrier between the east and central–west Pacific. Hawaiian and Southern African populations group within the west Pacific cluster. Effective population sizes were moderate/high for east/west populations (738 and 3421, respectively). Insights into the biology, connectivity, genetic diversity, and population demographics informs for improved conservation of this species, by delineating three to four conservation units across their Pacific distribution. Implementing such conservation management may be challenging, but is necessary to achieve long-term population resilience at basin and regional scales.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:conservation, Galapagos shark, cytonuclear markers, population structure
Research Division:Biological Sciences
Research Group:Genetics
Research Field:Genetics not elsewhere classified
Objective Division:Environmental Management
Objective Group:Marine systems and management
Objective Field:Marine biodiversity
UTAS Author:Green, ME (Ms Madeline Green)
ID Code:132048
Year Published:2018
Web of Science® Times Cited:25
Deposited By:Directorate
Deposited On:2019-04-17
Last Modified:2019-05-10

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