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The human development index predicts female entrepreneurship rates


Maniyalath, N and Narendran, R, The human development index predicts female entrepreneurship rates, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 22, (5) pp. 745-766. ISSN 1355-2554 (2016) [Refereed Article]

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Emerald Group Publishing Limited

DOI: doi:10.1108/IJEBR-11-2015-0258


Purpose Past research has identified a negative association between national income and female entrepreneurship rates. Data from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) 2012 are analyzed to determine whether the Human Development Index (HDI) predicts female entrepreneurship rates. The purpose of this paper is to indicate how other socioeconomic variables that measure human development interact with national income to predict female entrepreneurship rates.

Design/methodology/approach Data were drawn from the 2012 GEM data set, which provides information on female entrepreneurship rates in 61 countries. To test relevant hypotheses, dependent and socio-demographic variables were sourced from international databases to perform quantitative cross-country regression analyses.

Findings National income significantly predicted female entrepreneurship rates in the univariate analysis. However, this relationship became non-significant when development indices were added to the model. In contrast, the HDI, the Gender Inequality Index, and national religious composition were robust, significant predictors.

Practical implications This study presents evidence that human and gender development indices, and national religious composition, are better predictors of female entrepreneurship rates than national income. Thus, studies on female entrepreneurship rates should account and adjust for human development and gender equality indices. As religiosity continues to be pervasive within multiple nations, policymakers should consider this when developing interventions geared toward promoting female entrepreneurship.

Originality/value This paper identifies factors other than economic determinism to explain variance in female entrepreneurship rates and demonstrates that human development and gender inequality indices are better predictors of female entrepreneurship rates.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:gender equity, hypotheses, studies, economic development, entrepreneurship, economic growth, variables, equality, religion, entrepreneurship
Research Division:Commerce, Management, Tourism and Services
Research Group:Strategy, management and organisational behaviour
Research Field:Entrepreneurship
Objective Division:Economic Framework
Objective Group:Macroeconomics
Objective Field:Economic growth
UTAS Author:Narendran, R (Dr Roshni Narendran)
ID Code:130908
Year Published:2016
Web of Science® Times Cited:13
Deposited By:TSBE
Deposited On:2019-02-19
Last Modified:2019-03-28

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