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Effect of sex on vaccination outcomes: important but frequently overlooked


Harper, A and Flanagan, KL, Effect of sex on vaccination outcomes: important but frequently overlooked, Current Opinion in Pharmacology, 41 pp. 122-127. ISSN 1471-4892 (2018) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

Crown Copyright 2018 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI: doi:10.1016/j.coph.2018.05.009


It is well established that vaccination does not affect males and females equally. For example, females generally mount greater antibody responses to vaccination than males, but also suffer more adverse events following vaccination, probably as a result of more robust immunity. Despite this, most researchers in the field of vaccinology do not take biological sex into account when conducting their studies. This omission is likely to lead to a loss of important information in terms of both reactogenicity and immunogenicity following vaccination as well as those suffering adverse events. It also suggests that the vaccine dose in males and females may need to be different in order to achieve the same outcome of protective immunity while minimising reactogenicity.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:vaccines, vaccination, sex effects
Research Division:Biomedical and Clinical Sciences
Research Group:Immunology
Research Field:Applied immunology (incl. antibody engineering, xenotransplantation and t-cell therapies)
Objective Division:Manufacturing
Objective Group:Human pharmaceutical products
Objective Field:Human biological preventatives
UTAS Author:Harper, A (Miss Alice Harper)
UTAS Author:Flanagan, KL (Dr Katie Flanagan)
ID Code:130603
Year Published:2018
Web of Science® Times Cited:11
Deposited By:Medicine
Deposited On:2019-02-05
Last Modified:2022-08-25

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