CD36 is indispensable for nutrient homeostasis and endurance exercise capacity during prolonged fasting
Iso, T and Haruyama, H and Sunaga, H and Matsui, H and Matsui, M and Tanaka, R and Umbarawan, Y and Syamsunarno, MRAA and Putri, M and Yamaguchi, A and Hanaoka, H and Negishi, K and Yokoyama, T and Kurabayashi, M, CD36 is indispensable for nutrient homeostasis and endurance exercise capacity during prolonged fasting, Physiological Reports, 6, (18) Article e13884. ISSN 2051-817X (2018) [Refereed Article]
During fasting, most tissues including skeletal muscle heavily rely on utilization of fatty acids (FA) and minimize glucose use. In contrast, skeletal muscle prefers carbohydrate use as exercise intensity increases. In mice deficient for CD36 (CD36-/- mice), FA uptake is markedly reduced with a compensatory increase in glucose uptake in skeletal muscle even during fasting. In this study, we questioned how exercise endurance is affected during prolonged fasting in CD36-/- mice where glucose utilization is constantly increased. With or without a 24-h fast, a single bout of treadmill exercise was started at the speed of 10 m/min, and the speed was progressively increased up to 30 m/min until mice were exhausted. Running distance of wild type (WT) and CD36-/- mice was comparable in the fed state whereas that of CD36-/- mice was significantly reduced after a 24-h fast. Glycogen levels in liver and skeletal muscle were depleted both in WT and CD36-/- mice after a 24-h fast. In CD36-/- mice, FA uptake by skeletal muscle continued to be reduced during fasting. Glucose utilization also continued to be enhanced in the heart and oxidative skeletal muscle and glucose supply relative to its demand was diminished, resulting in accelerated hypoglycemia. Consequently, available energy substrates from serum and in muscle for exercise performance were very limited in CD36-/- mice during prolonged fasting, which could cause a remarkable reduction in exercise endurance. In conclusion, our study underscores the importance of CD36 for nutrient homeostasis to maintain exercise performance of skeletal muscle when nutrient supply is limited.