Approaches to Studying Research and Its Implications for the Quality of Learning From Distance Education
Kember, D and Harper, G, Approaches to Studying Research and Its Implications for the Quality of Learning From Distance Education, International Journal of Distance Education and E-Learning, 2, (2) pp. 15-30. ISSN 2520-7156 (1987) [Refereed Article]
This paper reviews the literature on the process phase of learning which is concerned with student's approaches to studying. Most of this research has focused on students in full-time, face-to-face study. This paper discusses the appropriateness of the research to distance education.
The relationship between various constructs arising from the approaches to studying research and academic outcomes is then examined. For distance education, surface approach or a propensity towards rote- learning appears strongly related to persistence.
The final part of the paper considers ways in which approaches to studying, and particularly surface approach, can be influenced by input variables. For students who habitually employ a surface approach, study skills initiatives of certain types are needed to teach the students how to employ a deep approach. Other students may normally employ a deep approach but such factors as assessment demands, workload, flexibility of courses and their interest to students can induce a surface approach. The implications for curriculum and instructional design of distance education courses are discussed.