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Examining the multidimensionality of approaches to learning through the development of a revised version of the Learning Process Questionnaire


Kember, D and Biggs, J and Leung, DYP, Examining the multidimensionality of approaches to learning through the development of a revised version of the Learning Process Questionnaire, British Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, (Pt 2) pp. 261-279. ISSN 0007-0998 (2004) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

Copyright 2004 The British Psychological Society

DOI: doi:10.1348/000709904773839879


Aim: This study aimed to produce a revised two‐factor version of the Learning Process Questionnaire (R‐LPQ‐2F) with deep and surface approach scales, measured by a reasonably small number of items, suitable for use by teachers in secondary schools to evaluate the learning approaches of their students.

Method: A set of 41 items was derived, with modification, from the original version of the LPQ and from items used to develop the revised version of the SPQ. These items were tested using reliability procedures and confirmatory factor analysis and items were deleted until scales were of a suitable length and confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit to the intended two‐factor structure.

Sample: The sample consisted of 841 students from 20 secondary schools in Hong Kong.

Results: The final two‐factor version of the questionnaire had good Cronbach alpha values and reasonable goodness‐of‐fit values for the confirmatory analysis. There was a much better fit, though, to a hierarchical structure with motive and strategy subscales for each approach, each of which, in turn, had two subcomponents.

Conclusion: Approaches to learning have a hierarchical dimensionality with motive and strategy elements. Each motive and strategy element is itself multidimensional. The results are used to question the conventional approach to the testing and acceptance of instruments, which place sole reliance upon reliability tests. The use of confirmatory factor analysis is recommended as a routine procedure in the development and testing of instruments.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Research Division:Education
Research Group:Specialist studies in education
Research Field:Learning sciences
Objective Division:Education and Training
Objective Group:Learner and learning
Objective Field:Learner and learning not elsewhere classified
UTAS Author:Kember, D (Professor David Kember)
ID Code:129967
Year Published:2004
Web of Science® Times Cited:169
Deposited By:Education
Deposited On:2019-01-02
Last Modified:2019-03-18

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