Clinical management of type 2 diabetes in south Asia
Misra, A and Sattar, N and Tandon, N and Shrivasatava, U and Vikram, NK and Khunti, K and Hills, AP, Clinical management of type 2 diabetes in south Asia, The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 6, (12) pp. 979-991. ISSN 2213-8587 (2018) [Refereed Article]
Compared with other ethnic groups, south Asian people with type 2 diabetes tend to develop the disease at a younger age and manifest with higher glycaemia, dyslipidaemia, nephropathy, and cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, specific issues that can affect treatment of type 2 diabetes in south Asia include poor awareness of the disease, delay in diagnosis, inadequate treatment, the use of ineffective and often harmful alternative medicines, and frequent non-compliance with lifestyle recommendations and drug treatment. Disease development at younger ages, delayed diagnosis, and inadequate management result in early development of severe complications and premature mortality. In this Series paper, we describe the challenges associated with the increasing burden of type 2 diabetes in south Asia and discuss ways to improve clinical care of people with the disorder in the region (defined to include Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka). Treatment of diabetes in south Asia needs to be individualised on the basis of diverse and heterogeneous lifestyle, phenotype, environmental, social, cultural, and economic factors. Aggressive management of risk factors from diagnosis is necessary to reduce the risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications, focusing on provision of basic treatments (eg, metformin, low-cost statins, and blood pressure-lowering drugs) and other interventions such as smoking cessation. Strengthening of the primary care model of care, better referral linkages, and implementation of rehabilitation services to care for patients with chronic complications will be important. Finally, improvement of physicians' skills, provision of relevant training to non-physician health-care workers, and the development and regular updating of national clinical management guidelines will also be crucial to improve diabetes care in the region.
south Asia, type 2 diabetes, clinical management, disease management