3D printed device including disk-based solid-phase extraction for the automated speciation of iron using the multisyringe flow injection analysis technique
Calderilla, C and Maya, F and Cerda, V and Leal, LO, 3D printed device including disk-based solid-phase extraction for the automated speciation of iron using the multisyringe flow injection analysis technique, Talanta, 175 pp. 463-469. ISSN 0039-9140 (2017) [Refereed Article]
The development of advanced manufacturing techniques is crucial for the design of novel analytical tools with unprecedented features. Advanced manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, has been explored for the first time to fabricate modular devices with integrated features for disk-based automated solid-phase extraction (SPE). A modular device integrating analyte oxidation, disk-based SPE and analyte complexation has been fabricated using stereolithographic 3D printing. The 3D printed device is directly connected to flow-based analytical instrumentation, replacing typical flow networks based on discrete elements. As proof of concept, the 3D printed device was implemented in a multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA) system, and applied to the fully automated speciation, SPE and spectrophotometric quantification of Fe in water samples. The obtained limit of detection for total Fe determination was 7 ng, with a dynamic linear range from 22 ng to 2400 ng Fe (3 mL sample). An intra-day RSD of 4% (n = 12) and an inter-day RSD of 4.3% (n = 5, 3 mL sample, different day with a different disk), were obtained. Incorporation of integrated 3D printed devices with automated flow-based techniques showed improved sensitivity (85% increase on the measured peak height for the determination of total Fe) in comparison with analogous flow manifolds built from conventional tubing and connectors. Our work represents a step forward towards the improved reproducibility in the fabrication of manifolds for flow-based automated methods of analysis, which is especially relevant in the implementation of interlaboratory analysis.
3D printing, flow analysis, solid-phase extraction, multisyringe flow injection analysis, automation, water analysis, iron determination