Mechanisms of cytosolic calcium elevation in plants: the role of ion channels, calcium extrusion systems and NADPH oxidase-mediated ‘ROS-Ca2+ Hub’
Demidchik, V and Shabala, S, Mechanisms of cytosolic calcium elevation in plants: the role of ion channels, calcium extrusion systems and NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS-Ca2+ Hub', Functional Plant Biology, 45, (2) pp. 9-27. ISSN 1445-4408 (2018) [Refereed Article]
Elevation in the cytosolic free calcium is crucial for plant growth, development and adaptation. Calcium influx into plant cells is mediated by Ca2+ depolarisation-activated, hyperpolarisation-activated and voltage-independent Ca2+-permeable channels (DACCs, HACCs and VICCs respectively). These channels are encoded by the following gene families: (1) cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGCs), (2) ionotropic glutamate receptors (GLRs), (3) annexins, (4) ‘mechanosensitive channels of small (MscS) conductance’-like channels (MSLs), (5) ‘mid1-complementing activity’ channels (MCAs), Piezo channels, and hyperosmolality-induced [Ca2+]cyt. channel 1 (OSCA1). Also, a ‘tandem-pore channel1’ (TPC1) catalyses Ca2+ efflux from the vacuole in response to the plasma membrane-mediated Ca2+ elevation. Recent experimental data demonstrated that Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. CNGCs 2, 5–10, 14, 16 and 18, GLRs 1.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.6 and 3.7, TPC1, ANNEXIN1, MSL9 and MSL10,MCA1 and MCA2, OSCA1, and some their homologues counterparts in other species, are responsible for Ca2+ currents and/or cytosolic Ca2+ elevation. Extrusion of Ca2+ from the cytosol is mediated by Ca2+-ATPases and Ca2+/H+ exchangers which were recently examined at the level of high resolution crystal structure. Calcium-activated NADPH oxidases and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-activated Ca2+ conductances form a self-amplifying ‘ROS-Ca2+hub’, enhancing and transducing Ca2+ and redox signals. The ROS-Ca2+ hub contributes to physiological reactions controlled by ROS and Ca2+, demonstrating synergism and unity of Ca2+ and ROS signalling mechanisms.