Chemokine C-C receptor 6 (CCR6) and its exclusive ligand CCL20 is an extremely important chemokine receptor-ligand pair which controls cell migration and immune induction during inflammatory disease. Not many scientific studies have been undertaken to study its immune mechanisms in detail, but its unique contribution to steady state cell chemotaxis in upholding immune tolerance and regulating immune homeostasis during inflammation is evident in multiple organ systems, including lung, liver, kidney, skin, brain, eye, joints, gonads and the gut in the human body. The role of CCR6 is constitutively expressed as a series of much debilitating severe inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, HIV and cancer metastasis. CD4+ T cells, the central organizers of adaptive immunity, are stringently mobilized by the CCR6/CCL20 axis also induced by cytokines and a host of other factors in a carefully executed immune modulation scenario, to bring about a delicate balance between pro-inflammatory TH17 cells and regulatory Treg cells. Although the exact immune regulatory role is not elucidated yet, CCR6/CCL20 axis is implicated as a front runner which determines the polarization of TH17 and Treg cells and consequently the resolution or progression of many debilitating disorders. This review therefore aims at emphasizing the pleiotropic significance of the chemokines CCR6 and CCL20 in immunologic function in multiple organ systems thereby hoping to accentuate its value in future therapeutic modalities.
chemokines, CCR6, CCL20, multiple immune functions, TH17, Treg, inflammation, multiple organs, health and disease