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Epitheliocystis in fish: an emerging aquaculture disease with a global impact

Citation

Blandford, MI and Taylor-Brown, A and Schlacher, TA and Nowak, B and Polkinghorne, A, Epitheliocystis in fish: an emerging aquaculture disease with a global impact, Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 65, (6) pp. 1436-1446. ISSN 1865-1674 (2018) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

Copyright 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH

DOI: doi:10.1111/tbed.12908

Abstract

Epitheliocystis is a skin and gill disease in fish caused by pathogenic intracellular bacteria. The disease has been reported in at least 90 species of marine and freshwater fish in both the southern and northern hemispheres. It affects a number of commercially important aquaculture species, including salmon, kingfish and bream. In infected fish, cysts typically develop in the gill epithelia, promoting the fusion of gill lamellae. Infections can lead to respiratory distress and death, particularly in cultured and juvenile fish with cases rarely reported in wild fish. Modern molecular techniques are challenging the conventional wisdoms regarding the epidemiology of epitheliocystis, showing now that a number of distinct bacterial pathogens from completely different phyla can cause this disease. Here, we review the state of knowledge, including updates on aetiology, host range, diagnosis and treatments. Traditionally, bacteria from the phylum Chlamydiae were the only known pathogenic agents of epitheliocystis, but aetiology is now recognized as being more complex, including a range of Proteobacteria. Notwithstanding recent advances in identifying the pathogens, the reservoirs and modes of transmission remain largely unknown. Recent genome sequencing of the growing number of epitheliocystis agents suggests that many bacteria causing this disease are unique to individual species of fish. Environmental conditions that approach or exceed animalsí physiological tolerances (e.g. atypical temperature, salinity or pH levels) are thought to contribute to disease development and progression. Empirical data and evidence concerning epidemiology, aetiology and treatments are, however, in many cases limited, highlighting the need for more work to better characterize this disease across the different hosts and locales affected.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:epitheliocystis, bacteria, farmed fish, wild fish, aquaculture, chlamydia, genomics, gills, proteobacteria, skin
Research Division:Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences
Research Group:Fisheries Sciences
Research Field:Fish Pests and Diseases
Objective Division:Animal Production and Animal Primary Products
Objective Group:Fisheries - Aquaculture
Objective Field:Fisheries - Aquaculture not elsewhere classified
UTAS Author:Nowak, B (Professor Barbara Nowak)
ID Code:126126
Year Published:2018
Web of Science® Times Cited:5
Deposited By:Fisheries and Aquaculture
Deposited On:2018-05-24
Last Modified:2019-03-21
Downloads:0

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