Phyto-toxicity of chromium in maize: oxidative damage, osmolyte accumulation, anti-oxidative defense and chromium uptake
Anjum, SA and Ashraf, U and Khan, I and Tanveer, M and Shahid, M and Shakoor, A and Wang, L, Phyto-toxicity of chromium in maize: oxidative damage, osmolyte accumulation, anti-oxidative defense and chromium uptake, Pedosphere, 27, (2) pp. 262-273. ISSN 1002-0160 (2017) [Refereed Article]
Agricultural production systems are immensely exposed to different environmental stresses in which heavy metal stress receives serious concerns. This study was conducted to explore the deleterious effects of different chromium (Cr) stress levels, i.e., 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 μmol L−1, on two maize genotypes, Wandan 13 and Runnong 35. Both genotypes were evaluated by measuring their growth and yield characteristics, Cr accumulation in different plant tissues, alterations in osmolyte accumulation, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and anti-oxidative enzyme activity to scavenge ROS. The results showed that Cr stress decreased the leaf area, cob formation, 100-grain weight, shoot fresh biomass, and yield formation, while Cr accumulation in different maize tissues was found in the order of roots > leaves > stem > seeds in both genotypes. The increased Cr toxicity resulted in higher free proline, soluble sugars and total phenolic contents, and lower soluble protein contents. However, enhanced lipid peroxidation was noticed in the forms of malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance accumulation, and electrolyte leakage. The hyperactivity of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, especially glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase indicated that these anti-oxidative enzymes had a central role in protecting maize from Cr toxicity, especially for Wandan 13. Moreover, higher uptake and less translocation of Cr contents into the grains of Wandan 13 implied its importance as a potential candidate against soil Cr pollution.
agronomic characteristics, anti-oxidative enzyme activity, Cr accumulation, Cr translocation, heavy metal stress, reactive oxygen species