The formation and trace elements of garnet in the skarn zone from the Xinqiao-Cu-S-Fe-Au deposit, Tongling ore district, Anhui Province, Eastern China
Xiao, X and Zhou, T-f and White, NC and Zhang, L-j and Fan, Y and Wang, F-y and Chen, X-f, The formation and trace elements of garnet in the skarn zone from the Xinqiao-Cu-S-Fe-Au deposit, Tongling ore district, Anhui Province, Eastern China, Lithos, 302-303 pp. 467-479. ISSN 0024-4937 (2018) [Refereed Article]
Xinqiao is a large copper-gold deposit and consists of two major mineralization types: stratabound and skarn. The skarn occurs along the contact between a quartz diorite intrusion and Carboniferous-Triassic limestone. Xinqiao has a strongly developed skarn zone, including endoskarn and exoskarn; the exoskarn is divided into proximal and distal exoskarn. We present systematic major, trace and rare earth element (REE) concentrations for garnets from the skarn zone, discuss the factors controlling the incorporation of trace elements into the garnets, and constrain the formation and evolution of the garnet from skarn zone in Xinqiao deposit. Grossular (Adr20–44Grs56–80) mostly occurs in endoskarn and has typical HREE-enriched and LREE-depleted patterns, with small Eu anomalies and low ∑REE. Garnets from the exoskarn show complex textures and chemical compositions. The composition of garnets range from Al-rich andradite (Adr63–81Grs19–47) to andradite (Adr67–98Grs2–33). Garnet in endoskarn has typical HREE-enriched and LREE-depleted patterns. Al-rich andradite in proximal skarn has small Eu anomalies and moderate ∑REE. Andradite from distal exoskarn shows strong positive Eu anomalies and has variable ∑REE. The U, Y, Fe and Al relationship with ∑REE shows that two mechanisms controlled incorporation of REE into the garnets: crystal chemistry (substitution and interstitial solid solution) mainly controlled in the endoskarn garnet (grossular) and the proximal exoskarn (Al-rich andradite), and fluid and rock chemistry (surface adsorption and occlusion) controlled REEs in the distal exoskarn. Furthermore, Al has a negative relationship with ∑REE indicating that REE3+ did not follow a coupled, YAG-type substitution into the garnets. Variations in textures and trace and rare earth elements of garnets suggest that the garnets in the endoskarn formed by slow crystal growth at low W/R ratios and near-neutral pH in a closed system during periods of diffusive metasomatism. The garnets in the exoskarn formed rapidly from externally derived fluids during advective metasomatism, and adsorption had a major control on the REE patterns in distal exoskarn. With the end of water-rock reaction, the contents of REE decreased in the hydrothermal fluid, and the system became nearly closed.
LA-ICPMS, endoskarn and exoskarn, garnet, substitution mechanism, evolution and formation, Xinqiao deposit, MLYB (Eastern China)