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Melanocyte transformation requires complete loss of all pocket protein function via a mechanism that mitigates the need for MAPK pathway activation

Citation

Tonks, ID and Mukhopadhyay, P and Schroder, WA and Sorolla, A and Mould, AW and Handoko, HY and Ferguson, B and Muller, HK and Keith, P and Hayward, NK and Walker, GJ and Kay, GF, Melanocyte transformation requires complete loss of all pocket protein function via a mechanism that mitigates the need for MAPK pathway activation, Oncogene, 36, (26) pp. 3789-3795. ISSN 0950-9232 (2017) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited

DOI: doi:10.1038/onc.2016.511

Abstract

Deregulation of p16INK4A is a critical event in melanoma susceptibility and progression. It is generally assumed that the major effect of loss of p16 function is mediated through the CDK-cyclin pathway via its influence on the pocket protein (PP) pRb. However, there are also two other PPs, p107 and p130, which, when phosphorylated by CDK-cyclin complexes, play a role in permitting cell progression. Cohorts of mice carrying melanocyte-specific knockouts (KOs) of various combinations of the three PPs were generated. Mice null for pRb, p107, p130 or any combination of double mutants did not develop melanoma. Surprisingly, melanocyte-specific loss of all three PPs facilitated melanoma development (median age of onset 308 days, penetrance 40% at 1 year). Tumorigenesis was exacerbated by Trp53 co-deletion (median age of onset 275 days, penetrance 82% at 1 year), with cell culture studies indicating that this difference may result from the apoptotic role of Trp53. Melanomas in PP;Trp53-deficient mice lacked either Ras or Braf mutations, and hence developed in the absence of constitutive MAPK pathway activation. The lag period between induction of total PP or PP/Trp53 KO and melanoma development indicates that additional genetic or epigenetic alterations may account for neoplastic progression. However, exome sequencing of PP;Trp53 KO melanomas failed to reveal any additional recurrent driver mutations. Analysis of the putative mutation signature of the PP;Trp53 KO melanomas suggests that melanocytes are primed for transformation via a mutagenic mechanism involving an excess of T > G substitutions, but not involving a preponderance of C > T substitutions at CpG sites, which is the case for most spontaneous cancers not driven by a specific carcinogen. In sum, deregulation of all three PPs appears central to neoplastic progression for melanoma, and the customary reference to the p16 INKA /CDK4/pRB pathway may no longer be accurate; all PPs are potentially critical targets of CDK-cyclins in melanoma.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Research Division:Medical and Health Sciences
Research Group:Oncology and Carcinogenesis
Research Field:Cancer Cell Biology
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions)
Objective Field:Cancer and Related Disorders
Author:Muller, HK (Professor Konrad Muller)
ID Code:125284
Year Published:2017
Web of Science® Times Cited:1
Deposited By:Medicine (Discipline)
Deposited On:2018-04-11
Last Modified:2018-05-22
Downloads:0

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