Role of Chinese cooking emissions on ambient air quality and human health
Wang, L and Xiang, Z and Stevanovic, S and Ristovski, Z and Salimi, F and Gao, J and Wang, H and Li, L, Role of Chinese cooking emissions on ambient air quality and human health, Science of the Total Environment, 589 pp. 173-181. ISSN 0048-9697 (2017) [Refereed Article]
Chinese-style cooking often involves volatilization of oils which can potentially produce a large number of pollutants, which have adverse impact on environment and human health. Therefore, we have reviewed 75 published studies associated with research topic among Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, involving studies on the roles of food ingredients and oil type, cooking style impacting on generated pollutants, and human health. The highest concentration occurred including: 1) when peat, wood, and raw coal were used in stoves; 2) olive oil was adopted; 3) cooking with high temperatures; and 4) without cleaning technology. We conclude that PM concentrations for cooking emissions were between 0.14 and 24.46mg/cm3. VOC concentrations varied from 0.35 to 3.41mg/m3. Barbeque produced the greatest mass concentrations compared to Sichuan cuisine, canteen and other restaurants. The PAHs concentration emitted from the exhaust stacks, dining area and kitchen ranged from 0.0175μg/m3 to 83μg/m3. The largest amount of gaseous pollutants emitted was recorded during incomplete combustion of fuel or when a low combustion efficiency (CO2/ (CO+CO2)<0.5) was observed. The variation range was 6.27-228.89mg/m3, 0.16-0.80mg/m3, 0.69-4.33mg/m3, 0.70-21.70mg/m3 for CO, CO2, NO2 and SO2 respectively. In regards to the toxicity and exposure, current findings concluded that both the dose and exposure time are significant factors to be considered. Scientific research in this area has been mainly driven by comparison among emissions from various ingredients and cooking techniques. There is still a need for more comprehensive studies to fully characterise the cooking emissions including their physical and chemical transformations which is crucial for accurate estimation of their impacts on the environment and human health.