Forearc peridotites from Tonga record heterogeneous oxidation of the mantle following subduction initiation
Birner, SK and Warren, JM and Cottrell, E and Davis, FA and Kelley, KA and Falloon, TJ, Forearc peridotites from Tonga record heterogeneous oxidation of the mantle following subduction initiation, Journal of Petrology, 58, (9) pp. 1755-1780. ISSN 0022-3530 (2017) [Refereed Article]
The elevated oxygen fugacity recorded by subduction-related lavas and peridotites, relative to their mid-ocean ridge counterparts, fundamentally influences the petrogenesis of arc magmas. However, the timing, process, and spatial extent of oxidizing mass transfer at subduction zones remain unknown. Forearc peridotites, which are sometimes exposed on the trench wall of the overriding plate, record chemical fingerprints of the melting and melt–rock interaction processes that occur during and following subduction initiation, and thus provide insight into the spatial and temporal evolution of this oxidized signature. In this study, we present new major element, trace element, and oxygen fugacity data for a suite of forearc peridotites recovered from the Tonga Trench, in addition to a new assessment of literature data for previously studied forearc peridotites. For Tonga samples and literature data for forearc, ridge, and subduction-zone peridotites, we calculate oxygen fugacity (fO2) using an updated method. In contrast to previous studies, we find that spinel Cr#, a proxy for extent of melt extraction, does not correlate with oxygen fugacity, such that many forearc peridotites with high spinel Cr# do not record oxygen fugacity higher than the mid-ocean ridge peridotite array. Combining these observations with trace element modeling, we conclude that forearc peridotites are less pervasively influenced by oxidation owing to subduction processes than previously reported. The oxygen fugacity recorded by Tonga forearc peridotites is heterogeneous between dredges and homogeneous within dredges. To explore these variations, we grouped the dredges into two categories. Group I peridotites have high spinel Cr#, extremely depleted trace element compositions and oxygen fugacity values consistent with the mid-ocean ridge peridotite array. We interpret these to be the residues of large degrees of fractional melting, with little influence from arc-like melts or fluids, formed during the first stages of subduction initiation. Group II peridotites have lower spinel Cr#, enriched light rare earth elements, and oxygen fugacity elevated by ≥1 log unit above the mid-ocean peridotite array. We interpret these peridotites to be the residues of flux melting, initiated once corner flow is established in the young subduction zone. We conclude that the forearc mantle is not pervasively oxidized relative to mid-ocean ridge mantle, and that the asthenospheric mantle in the proto-subduction zone region is not oxidized prior to subduction initiation. As the oxidized signature in Group II peridotites accompanies geochemical evidence of interaction with subduction-related fluids and melts, this suggests that the sub-arc mantle is oxidized concurrently with addition of subduction fluids to the mantle wedge.