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NGO partnerships in using ecotourism for conservation: systematic review and meta-analysis


Romero-Brito, TP and Buckley, RC and Byrne, J, NGO partnerships in using ecotourism for conservation: systematic review and meta-analysis, PLoS One, 11, (11) Article e0166919. ISSN 1932-6203 (2016) [Refereed Article]


Copyright Statement

Copyright 2016 Romero-Brito et al. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)

DOI: doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0166919


We analyse 214 cases worldwide where non-governmental organisations (NGOs) use ecotourism for conservation. Other stakeholders in these initiatives include local communities, the private sector, and government agencies. Stakeholder relationships determine NGO roles and project management structures and governance. We classified cases into 10 structural categories based on the initiating stakeholder and the NGO role, and used these categories to analyze geographic patterns and success factors. Most of the 214 cases are community-based (~170; 79%); most are in developing countries (190; 89%); and most are in protected areas (196; 91%). Frequencies of structural categories differ between continents. More cases in Latin America and Asia are initiated by NGOs and local communities, and more in Africa by the private sector. Case-study authors used a range of economic, socio-cultural and environmental criteria to judge whether projects were successful. At global scale, we found no significant association between project success and the involvement of private tourism entrepreneurs. Projects involving either local or international NGOs had higher success rates than those that involved both simultaneously. Future research could adopt political ecology approaches to examine: the factors that lead NGOs to adopt ecotourism enterprises; their internal decision-making processes and strategies; their interactions with the stakeholders involved; and their conservation goals and outcomes.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:ecotourism, conservation
Research Division:Commerce, Management, Tourism and Services
Research Group:Tourism
Research Field:Impacts of tourism
Objective Division:Commercial Services and Tourism
Objective Group:Environmentally sustainable commercial services and tourism
Objective Field:Environmentally sustainable commercial services and tourism not elsewhere classified
UTAS Author:Byrne, J (Professor Jason Byrne)
ID Code:123926
Year Published:2016
Web of Science® Times Cited:24
Deposited By:Geography and Spatial Science
Deposited On:2018-02-01
Last Modified:2018-03-22
Downloads:142 View Download Statistics

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