DHA mediates the protective effect of fish consumption on new episodes of depression among women
Reeves, JL and Otahal, P and Magnussen, CG and Dwyer, T and Kangas, AJ and Soininen, P and Ala-Korpela, M and Venn, AJ and Smith, KJ, DHA mediates the protective effect of fish consumption on new episodes of depression among women, British Journal of Nutrition, 118, (9) pp. 743-749. ISSN 0007-1145 (2017) [Refereed Article]
In a longitudinal cohort study of young Australian adults, we reported that for women higher baseline levels of fish consumption were associated with reduced incidence of new depressive episodes during the 5-year follow-up. Fish are high in both n-3 fatty acids and tyrosine. In this study, we seek to determine whether n-3 fatty acids or tyrosine explain the observed association. During 2004-2006, a FFQ (nine fish items) was used to estimate weekly fish consumption among 546 women aged 26-36 years. A fasting blood sample was taken and high-throughput NMR spectroscopy was used to measure 233 metabolites, including serum n-3 fatty acids and tyrosine. During 2009-2011, new episodes of depression since baseline were identified using the lifetime version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Relative risks were calculated using log-binomial regression and indirect effects estimated using the STATA binary_mediation command. Potential mediators were added to separate models, and mediation was quantified as the proportion of the total effect due to the mediator. The n-3 DHA mediated 25·3 % of the association between fish consumption and depression when fish consumption was analysed as a continuous variable and 16·6 % when dichotomised (reference group: < 2 serves/week). Tyrosine did not mediate the association (< 0·1 %). Components in fish other than n-3 fatty acids and tyrosine might be beneficial for women's mental health.
fish, depression, omega-3, young adults, mediation, tyrosine