Amperometric detection of amines using cobalt electrodes after separation by ion-moderated partition chromatography
Hidayat, A and Hibbert, DB and Alexander, PW, Amperometric detection of amines using cobalt electrodes after separation by ion-moderated partition chromatography, Talanta, 44, (2) pp. 239-248. ISSN 0039-9140 (1997) [Refereed Article]
A simple and low-cost amperometric sensor for amines has been developed using a cobalt wire electrode working in alkaline solution. The sensor may be used as a detector for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) that avoids the need for derivatization or post-column reaction. Experimental conditions for flow injection analysis (FIA) and HPLC separation, including the applied potential, pH and concentrations of organic modifier and carrier solution, were optimized. A cobalt wire electrode, in the constant potential amperometric mode, gives an excellent response toward amines in ion- exclusion chromatography in unbuffered solution. The sensitivities of the detection and separation of amines on the column are affected by flow rate, the concentration of the mobile phase and the concentration of organic solvent in the mobile phase, whereas the applied potential only affects the sensitivity of the detector. A cobalt electrode is more sensitive than a copper electrode, and comparable in sensitivity to a UV detector for most amines tested. The detection sensitivity is comparable to that obtained with GC methods, but the procedures are far simpler. The detection limits of the order of nanomoles obtained under the chromatographic conditions used offer an alternative for the determination of amines in a variety of matrices, such as in environmental, biomedical and pharmaceutical samples.