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The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 - part 3: the last millennium, scientific objective, and experimental design for the PMIP4 past1000 simulations


Jungclaus, JH and Bard, E and Baroni, M and Braconnot, P and Cao, J and Chini, LP and Egorova, T and Evans, M and Fidel Gonzalez-Rouco, J and Goosse, H and Hurtt, GC and Joos, F and Kaplan, JO and Khodri, M and Klein Goldewijk, K and Krivova, N and Legrande, AN and Lorenz, SJ and Luterbacher, J and Man, W and Maycock, AC and Meinshausen, M and Moberg, A and Muscheler, R and Nehrbass-Ahles, C and Otto-Bliesner, BI and Phipps, SJ and Pongratz, J and Rozanov, E and Schmidt, GA and Schmidt, H and Schmutz, W and Schurer, A and Shapiro, AI and Sigl, M and Smerdon, JE and Solanki, SK and Timmreck, C and Toohey, M and Usoskin, IG and Wagner, S and Wu, CJ and Yeo, KL and Zanchettin, D and Zhang, Q and Zorita, E, The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 - part 3: the last millennium, scientific objective, and experimental design for the PMIP4 past1000 simulations, Geoscientific Model Development, 10, (11) pp. 4005-4033. ISSN 1991-959X (2017) [Refereed Article]


Copyright Statement

© Author(s) 2017. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported (CC BY 3.0)

DOI: doi:10.5194/gmd-10-4005-2017


The pre-industrial millennium is among the periods selected by the Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Project (PMIP) for experiments contributing to the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) and the fourth phase of the PMIP (PMIP4). The past1000 transient simulations serve to investigate the response to (mainly) natural forcing under background conditions not too different from today, and to discriminate between forced and internally generated variability on interannual to centennial timescales. This paper describes the motivation and the experimental set-ups for the PMIP4-CMIP6 past1000 simulations, and discusses the forcing agents orbital, solar, volcanic, and land use/land cover changes, and variations in greenhouse gas concentrations. The past1000 simulations covering the pre-industrial millennium from 850 Common Era (CE) to 1849 CE have to be complemented by historical simulations (1850 to 2014 CE) following the CMIP6 protocol. The external forcings for the past1000 experiments have been adapted to provide a seamless transition across these time periods. Protocols for the past1000 simulations have been divided into three tiers. A default forcing data set has been defined for the Tier 1 (the CMIP6 past1000) experiment. However, the PMIP community has maintained the flexibility to conduct coordinated sensitivity experiments to explore uncertainty in forcing reconstructions as well as parameter uncertainty in dedicated Tier 2 simulations. Additional experiments (Tier 3) are defined to foster collaborative model experiments focusing on the early instrumental period and to extend the temporal range and the scope of the simulations. This paper outlines current and future research foci and common analyses for collaborative work between the PMIP and the observational communities (reconstructions, instrumental data).

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:PMIP, palaeoclimatology, climate modelling, last millennium
Research Division:Earth Sciences
Research Group:Physical geography and environmental geoscience
Research Field:Palaeoclimatology
Objective Division:Environmental Policy, Climate Change and Natural Hazards
Objective Group:Understanding climate change
Objective Field:Climate change models
UTAS Author:Phipps, SJ (Dr Steven Phipps)
ID Code:122541
Year Published:2017
Web of Science® Times Cited:84
Deposited By:Oceans and Cryosphere
Deposited On:2017-11-16
Last Modified:2018-05-25
Downloads:88 View Download Statistics

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