Scenario-based risk assessment of TENORM waste disposal options in oil and gas industry
ALNabhani, K and Khan, FI and Yang, M, Scenario-based risk assessment of TENORM waste disposal options in oil and gas industry, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 40 pp. 55-66. ISSN 0950-4230 (2016) [Refereed Article]
Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Nuclear Radioactive Materials (TENORM) waste in the petroleum industry has become a serious concern as a potential source of radiation. The risk of being exposed to TENORM waste must be identified and controlled to protect workers, the general public and the environment. This paper presents an analysis of TENORM waste disposal options and risk assessment methods commonly used in the oil and gas industry. To assess their effectiveness, the paper utilizes an integrated fate and transport methodology and exposure pathways. The paper also studies plausible scenarios in which the contaminants can migrate through the geosphere and biosphere, reaching the environment, animals and humans. A real case scenario of TENORM waste disposed in an evaporation pond is simulated using RESRAD (version 6.5) where real data used as input parameters to evaluate the potential radiological doses and increased carcinogenic risk. To both understand and validate the simulated results, the findings of the real case scenario are compared with results obtained using a similar simulated scenario constructed from a literature review.