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Commonness and rarity in the marine biosphere

Citation

Connolly, SR and MacNeil, MA and Caley, MJ and Knowlton, N and Cripps, E and Hisano, M and Thibaut, LM and Bhattacharya, BD and Benedetti-Cecchi, L and Brainard, RE and Brandt, A and Bulleri, F and Ellingsen, KE and Kaiser, S and Kroncke, I and Linse, K and Maggi, E and O'Hara, TD and Plaisance, L and Poore, GCB and Sarkar, SK and Satpathy, KK and Schuckel, U and Williams, A and Wilson, RS, Commonness and rarity in the marine biosphere, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111, (23) pp. 8524-8529. ISSN 0027-8424 (2014) [Refereed Article]


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Copyright Statement

Copyright 2014 National Academy of Sciences

DOI: doi:10.1073/pnas.1406664111

Abstract

Explaining patterns of commonness and rarity is fundamental for understanding and managing biodiversity. Consequently, a key test of biodiversity theory has been how well ecological models reproduce empirical distributions of species abundances. However, ecological models with very different assumptions can predict similar species abundance distributions, whereas models with similar assumptions may generate very different predictions. This complicates inferring processes driving community structure from model fits to data. Here, we use an approximation that captures common features of "neutral" biodiversity models-which assume ecological equivalence of species-to test whether neutrality is consistent with patterns of commonness and rarity in the marine biosphere. We do this by analyzing 1,185 species abundance distributions from 14 marine ecosystems ranging from intertidal habitats to abyssal depths, and from the tropics to polar regions. Neutrality performs substantially worse than a classical nonneutral alternative: empirical data consistently show greater heterogeneity of species abundances than expected under neutrality. Poor performance of neutral theory is driven by its consistent inability to capture the dominance of the communities' most-abundant species. Previous tests showing poor performance of a neutral model for a particular system often have been followed by controversy about whether an alternative formulation of neutral theory could explain the data after all. However, our approach focuses on common features of neutral models, revealing discrepancies with a broad range of empirical abundance distributions. These findings highlight the need for biodiversity theory in which ecological differences among species, such as niche differences and demographic trade-offs, play a central role.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:marine macroecology, metacommunities, poisson-lognormal, distribution, species coexistence
Research Division:Environmental Sciences
Research Group:Environmental Science and Management
Research Field:Conservation and Biodiversity
Objective Division:Environment
Objective Group:Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity
Objective Field:Marine Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity
Author:Williams, A (Dr Alan Williams)
ID Code:119427
Year Published:2014
Web of Science® Times Cited:33
Deposited By:Centre for Ecology and Biodiversity
Deposited On:2017-08-01
Last Modified:2017-09-27
Downloads:6 View Download Statistics

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