Peacock, A and Bruno, R and Ferris, J and Winstock, A, Energy drink use frequency among an international sample of people who use drugs: Associations with other substance use and well-being, Drug and alcohol dependence, 174 pp. 70-79. ISSN 0376-8716 (2017) [Refereed Article]
Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V.
Objective: The study aims were to identify: i.) energy drink (ED), caffeine tablet, and caffeine intranasal spray use amongst a sample who report drug use, and ii.) the association between ED use frequency and demographic profile, drug use, hazardous drinking, and wellbeing.
Method: Participants (n = 74,864) who reported drug use completed the online 2014 Global Drug Survey. They provided data on demographics, ED use, and alcohol and drug use, completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI), and reported whether they wished to reduce alcohol use.
Results: Lifetime ED, caffeine tablet and intranasal caffeine spray use were reported by 69.2%, 24.5% and 4.9%. Median age of ED initiation was 16 years. For those aged 16–37, median years using EDs increased from 4 to 17 years of consumption, where it declined thereafter. Greater ED use frequency was associated with: being male; under 21 years of age; studying; and past year caffeine tablet/intranasal spray, tobacco, cannabis, amphetamine, MDMA, and cocaine use. Past year, infrequent (1–4 days) and frequent (≥5 days) past month ED consumers reported higher AUDIT scores and lower PWI scores than lifetime abstainers; past month consumers were less likely to report a desire to reduce alcohol use.
Conclusions: ED use is part of a complex interplay of drug use, alcohol problems, and poorer personal wellbeing, and ED use frequency may be a flag for current/future problems. Prospective research is required exploring where ED use fits within the trajectory of other alcohol and drug use.
|Item Type:||Refereed Article|
|Keywords:||energy drink, caffeine, alcohol, ecstasy, stimulant|
|Research Division:||Health Sciences|
|Research Group:||Health services and systems|
|Research Field:||Health services and systems not elsewhere classified|
|Objective Group:||Public health (excl. specific population health)|
|Objective Field:||Public health (excl. specific population health) not elsewhere classified|
|UTAS Author:||Peacock, A (Miss Amy Peacock)|
|UTAS Author:||Bruno, R (Associate Professor Raimondo Bruno)|
|Web of Science® Times Cited:||8|
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