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Trends in PIEDs use among male clients of needle-syringe programs in Queensland, Australia; 2007-2015


Jacka, B and Peacock, A and Degenhardt, L and Bruno, R and Clare, P and Kemp, R and Dev, A and Larance, B, Trends in PIEDs use among male clients of needle-syringe programs in Queensland, Australia; 2007-2015, The International journal on drug policy, 46, (August) pp. 74-78. ISSN 0955-3959 (2017) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

© 2017 Elsevier B.V

DOI: doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.05.048


Background: Increased utilisation of needle–syringe programs (NSP) by men who inject performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs) has been reported. While fewer in number, people who inject PIEDs possess distinct service and knowledge needs compared to other NSP clients.

Methods: Using standardised data from 26 NSP outlets through the Queensland NSP Minimum Data Set (QNSPMDS), trends in occasions of services among males intending to inject PIEDs were assessed using multilevel mixed-effects negative binomial regression, adjusting for month, year, and age, and clustering by site.

Results: Compared to 2007, PIEDs-related occasions of service increased from 2008 until 2013 (3% and 13% of all occasions of service involving males in 2007 and 2015, respectively). While accounting for the fewest occasions of service, the Northern region experienced the greatest rate of occasion of service increase (2015 IRR 7.46, 95%CI: 6.11, 9.12). Similarly higher rates were seen among males aged <35 years. Interventions were provided at 55% of occasions of service; most commonly safe equipment disposal (23%), and blood-borne virus (9%) and safe injecting/vein-care (9%) education.

Conclusion: NSP settings provide an opportunity to engage with this unique population, providing important education on injection-related injuries and diseases, including blood-borne viruses, and greater linkage to primary care.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:steroids, performance and image enhancing drugs, substance misuse, needle and syringe program, people who inject drugs
Research Division:Health Sciences
Research Group:Health services and systems
Research Field:Health services and systems not elsewhere classified
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Public health (excl. specific population health)
Objective Field:Public health (excl. specific population health) not elsewhere classified
UTAS Author:Peacock, A (Miss Amy Peacock)
UTAS Author:Bruno, R (Associate Professor Raimondo Bruno)
ID Code:119267
Year Published:2017
Web of Science® Times Cited:11
Deposited By:Psychology
Deposited On:2017-07-28
Last Modified:2018-07-25

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