eCite Digital Repository

Metabolic engineering plant seeds with fish oil-like levels of DHA


Petrie, JR and Shrestha, P and Zhou, X-R and Mansour, MP and Liu, Q and Belide, S and Nichols, PD and Singh, SP, Metabolic engineering plant seeds with fish oil-like levels of DHA, PLoS One, 7, (11) Article e49165. ISSN 1932-6203 (2012) [Refereed Article]


Copyright Statement

Copyright: 2012 Petrie et al. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)

DOI: doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049165



Omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) have critical roles in human health and development with studies indicating that deficiencies in these fatty acids can increase the risk or severity of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases in particular. These fatty acids are predominantly sourced from fish and algal oils, but it is widely recognised that there is an urgent need for an alternative and sustainable source of EPA and DHA. Since the earliest demonstrations of ω3 LC-PUFA engineering there has been good progress in engineering the C20 EPA with seed fatty acid levels similar to that observed in bulk fish oil (∼18%), although undesirable ω6 PUFA levels have also remained high.

Methodology/Principal Findings

The transgenic seed production of the particularly important C22 DHA has been problematic with many attempts resulting in the accumulation of EPA/DPA, but only a few percent of DHA. This study describes the production of up to 15% of the C22 fatty acid DHA in Arabidopsis thaliana seed oil with a high ω3/ω6 ratio. This was achieved using a transgenic pathway to increase the C18 ALA which was then converted to DHA by a microalgal Δ6-desaturase pathway.


The amount of DHA described in this study exceeds the 12% level at which DHA is generally found in bulk fish oil. This is a breakthrough in the development of sustainable alternative sources of DHA as this technology should be applicable in oilseed crops. One hectare of a Brassica napus crop containing 12% DHA in seed oil would produce as much DHA as approximately 10,000 fish.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:DHA, fish oil
Research Division:Agricultural, Veterinary and Food Sciences
Research Group:Agricultural biotechnology
Research Field:Transgenesis
Objective Division:Manufacturing
Objective Group:Processed food products and beverages (excl. dairy products)
Objective Field:Processed fish and seafood products
UTAS Author:Nichols, PD (Dr Peter Nichols)
ID Code:118960
Year Published:2012
Web of Science® Times Cited:121
Deposited By:Ecology and Biodiversity
Deposited On:2017-07-24
Last Modified:2017-08-17
Downloads:131 View Download Statistics

Repository Staff Only: item control page