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Changes in ocean heat, carbon content, and ventilation: a review of the first decade of GO-SHIP global repeat hydrography

Citation

Talley, LD and Feeley, RA and Sloyan, BM and Wanninkhof, R and Baringer, MO and Bullister, JL and Carlson, CA and Doney, SC and Fine, RA and Firing, E and Gruber, N and Hansell, DA and Ishii, M and Johnson, GC and Katsumata, K and Key, RM and Kramp, M and Langdon, C and Macdonald, AM and Mathis, JT and McDonagh, EL and Mecking, S and Millero, FJ and Mordy, CW and Nakano, T and Sabine, CL and Smethie, WM and Swift, JH and Tanhua, T and Thurnherr, AM and Warner, MJ and Zhang, J-Z, Changes in ocean heat, carbon content, and ventilation: a review of the first decade of GO-SHIP global repeat hydrography, Annual Review of Marine Science, 8 pp. 185-215. ISSN 1941-1405 (2016) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

Copyright 2016 Annual Reviews

DOI: doi:10.1146/annurev-marine-052915-100829

Abstract

Global ship-based programs, with highly accurate, full water column physical and biogeochemical observations repeated decadally since the 1970s, provide a crucial resource for documenting ocean change. The ocean, a central component of Earth's climate system, is taking up most of Earth's excess anthropogenic heat, with about 19% of this excess in the abyssal ocean beneath 2,000 m, dominated by Southern Ocean warming. The ocean also has taken up about 27% of anthropogenic carbon, resulting in acidification of the upper ocean. Increased stratification has resulted in a decline in oxygen and increase in nutrients in the Northern Hemisphere thermocline and an expansion of tropical oxygen minimum zones. Southern Hemisphere thermocline oxygen increased in the 2000s owing to stronger wind forcingand ventilation. The most recent decade of global hydrography has mapped dissolved organic carbon, a large, bioactive reservoir, for the first time and quantified its contribution to export production (∼20%) and deep-ocean oxygen utilization. Ship-based measurements also show that vertical diffusivity increases from a minimum in the thermocline to a maximum within the bottom 1,500 m, shifting our physical paradigm of the ocean's overturning circulation.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:anthropogenic climate change, ocean temperature change, salinity change, ocean carbon cycle, ocean oxygen and nutrients, ocean chlorofluorocarbons, ocean circulation change, ocean mixing
Research Division:Earth Sciences
Research Group:Oceanography
Research Field:Physical Oceanography
Objective Division:Environment
Objective Group:Climate and Climate Change
Objective Field:Climate Variability (excl. Social Impacts)
Author:Sloyan, BM (Dr Bernadette Sloyan)
ID Code:118789
Year Published:2016
Web of Science® Times Cited:20
Deposited By:Sustainable Marine Research Collaboration
Deposited On:2017-07-20
Last Modified:2017-08-18
Downloads:0

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