Domestic fuelwood harvesters illegally reduced coarse (≥10-cm diameter) downed woody debris stocks in Tasmanian mature dry eucalypt forests, 27-34 m tall, by 96.9 m3 ha-1 or 22.7 t ha-1. There was no effect of domestic harvesting on quantities of dead trees or live trees. Few dead trees were encountered in natural (unharvested) sites. Domestic harvesters preferentially removed debris <70 cm in diameter, leaving domestically harvested sites with 40% less volume and biomass of downed woody debris than natural sites. Assuming domestic harvesting, at the measured intensity, extends 25 m into forests either side of the state forest road system that passes through the studied forest type, dead wood stocks in that forest type and tenure throughout the state have been reduced by 688 000 m3 or 161 000 t. Domestic harvesting potentially damages biodiversity values, diminishes habitat available for species dependent on fallen logs and reduces forest carbon stocks. Domestic harvesters are advised to obtain licences to collect fuelwood from areas with an appropriate forest practices plan.