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Tracking of vitamin D status from childhood to early adulthood and its association with peak bone mass


Zhu, K and Oddy, WH and Holt, P and Ping-Delfos, WCS and Mountain, J and Lye, S and Pennell, C and Hart, PH and Walsh, JP, Tracking of vitamin D status from childhood to early adulthood and its association with peak bone mass, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 106, (1) pp. 276-283. ISSN 0002-9165 (2017) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

Copyright 2017 by the American Society for Nutrition

DOI: doi:10.3945/ajcn.116.150524


Background: To our knowledge, there are few longitudinal studies of vitamin D status from childhood to early adulthood, and it is uncertain whether vitamin D predicts peak bone mass in young adults.

Objectives: The purpose of this longitudinal study was to evaluate the long-term stability of vitamin D status from ages 6 to 20 y in healthy individuals and to study associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] at different developmental stages and bone mass measured at age 20 y.

Design: Participants were offspring of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study. Serum 25(OH)D was assessed at ages 6, 14, 17, and 20 y, and whole-body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured at age 20 y through the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Our analysis included 821 participants (385 females) who had ≥ 3 serum 25(OH)D measures and DXA data. We used latent class growth analysis and identified 4 vitamin D status trajectories: consistently lower (n = 259), decreasing (n = 125), increasing (n = 138), and consistently higher (n = 299).

Results: There were significant correlations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations at different time points in both sexes (r = 0.346-0.560, P < 0.001), with stronger correlations at adjacent time points. In males, but not in females, serum 25(OH)D at ages 6, 17, and 20 y was positively associated with total-body BMC and BMD at age 20 y [covariate-adjusted increments of 40.7-53.9 g and 14.7-18.6 mg/cm2, respectively, per 25 nmol/L 25(OH)D]; when 25(OH)D at all 4 ages was included in the same model, the concentration at age 6 y remained significant. Males in the "consistently higher" trajectory had 3.2-3.4% higher total body BMC and BMD than those who were in the "consistently lower" trajectory, accounting for age and anthropometric and lifestyle factors.

Conclusions: Within both sexes, there are moderate associations between vitamin D status measured in prepuberty, adolescence, and early adulthood. Vitamin D status in childhood is a significant predictor of peak bone mass in male but not female subjects.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:Raine study, early adulthood, peak bone mass, tracking, vitamin D status
Research Division:Biomedical and Clinical Sciences
Research Group:Nutrition and dietetics
Research Field:Nutrition and dietetics not elsewhere classified
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Public health (excl. specific population health)
Objective Field:Public health (excl. specific population health) not elsewhere classified
UTAS Author:Oddy, WH (Professor Wendy Oddy)
ID Code:117430
Year Published:2017
Web of Science® Times Cited:31
Deposited By:Menzies Institute for Medical Research
Deposited On:2017-06-14
Last Modified:2022-08-24

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