Cuellar-Partida, G and Williams, KM and Yazar, S and Guggenheim, JA and Hewitt, AW and Williams, C and Wang, JJ and Kho, P-F and Saw, SM and Cheng, C-Y and Wong, TY and Aung, T and Young, TL and Tideman, JWL and Jonas, JB and Mitchell, P and Wojciechowski, R and Stambolian, D and Hysi, P and Hammond, CJ and Mackey, DA and Lucas, RM and MacGregor, S, Consortium for Refractive Error and Myopia (CREAM), Genetically low vitamin D concentrations and myopic refractive error: a Mendelian randomization study, International Journal of Epidemiology, 46, (6) pp. 1882-1890. ISSN 0300-5771 (2017) [Refereed Article]
Copyright The Author 2017; all rights reserved.
Methods: We performed MR using results from a meta-analysis of refractive error (RE) genome-wide association study (GWAS) that included 37 382 and 8 376 adult participants of European and Asian ancestry, respectively, published by the Consortium for Refractive Error And Myopia (CREAM). We used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the DHCR7 , CYP2R1, GC and CYP24A1 genes with known effects on 25(OH)D concentration as instrumental variables (IV). We estimated the effect of 25(OH)D on myopia level using a Wald-type ratio estimator based on the effect estimates from the CREAM GWAS.
Results: Using the combined effect attributed to the four SNPs, the estimate for the effect of 25(OH)D on refractive error was -0.02 [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.09, 0.04] dioptres (D) per 10 nmol/l increase in 25(OH)D concentration in Caucasians and 0.01 (95% CI -0.17, 0.19) D per 10 nmol/l increase in Asians.
Conclusions: The tight confidence intervals on our estimates suggest the true contribution of vitamin D levels to degree of myopia is very small and indistinguishable from zero. Previous findings from observational studies linking vitamin D levels to myopia were likely attributable to the effects of confounding by time spent outdoors.
|Item Type:||Refereed Article|
|Keywords:||Mendelian randomization, myopia, vitamin D|
|Research Division:||Medical and Health Sciences|
|Research Group:||Ophthalmology and Optometry|
|Objective Group:||Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions)|
|Objective Field:||Hearing, Vision, Speech and Their Disorders|
|UTAS Author:||Hewitt, AW (Professor Alex Hewitt)|
|UTAS Author:||Mackey, DA (Professor David Mackey)|
|Web of Science® Times Cited:||1|
|Deposited By:||Menzies Institute for Medical Research|
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