With 30 species, Tasmania is a major area of species diversity in the genus Menegazzia. Seven of these are new to science: M. abscondita Kantvilas, known from Tasmania and New Zealand, and M. athrotaxidis Kantvilas, M. hypogymnioides Kantvilas, M. petraea Kantvilas, M. ramulicola Kantvilas, M. subtestacea Kantvilas and M. tarkinea Kantvilas, all endemic to Tasmania. An identification key, descriptions based exclusively on Tasmanian collections, and detailed discussion of distribution, ecology, chemical composition and inter-species relationships are provided. All literature records of Menegazzia species pertaining to Tasmania are accounted for. New synonyms include: Menegazzia prototypica P. James and Parmelia pertusa var. coskinodes F. Wilson [synonyms of M. myriotrema (Mull. Arg.) R. Sant.], M. fertilis P. James [a synonym of M. platytrema (Mull. Arg.) R. Sant.] and Parmelia pertusa var. montana F. Wilson (a synonym of M. subtestacea). Incorrectly recorded species that should be deleted from the Tasmanian census include M. castanea P. James & D. J. Galloway (present on Macquarie Island) and M. testacea P. James & D. J. Galloway (endemic to New Zealand). The South American species, M. sanguinascens (Ras.) R. Sant., is recorded in Australasia (Tasmania) for the first time, whereas the widespread south-eastern Australian M. norstictica P. James is recorded for Western Australia. Salient features of the genus are discussed, including morphology, anatomy and chemistry. The biogeography of the genus is explored briefly. Twelve species (40%) are endemic to Tasmania, a level of endemism unmatched by any other species-rich genus on the island. Twelve species are shared with mainland Australia, eleven are shared with New Zealand, and only four species are shared with southern South America, all of which are sorediate, suggesting they are products of long-distance dispersal.