Ultraviolet radiation effects on fruit surface respiration and chlorophyll fluorescence
Glenn, DM and Wunsche, J and McIvor, I and Nissen, R and George, A, Ultraviolet radiation effects on fruit surface respiration and chlorophyll fluorescence, Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 83, (1) pp. 43-50. ISSN 1462-0316 (2008) [Refereed Article]
High-value fruit crops are exposed to a range of environmental conditions that can reduce fruit quality. Solar injury (SI) or sunburn is a common disorder in tropical, sub-tropical, and temperate climates and is related to: 1) high fruit surface temperature; 2) high visible light intensity; and, 3) ultraviolet radiation (UV). Positional changes in fruit that are caused by increased weight or abrupt changes that result from Summer pruning, limb breakage, or other damage to the canopy can expose fruit to high solar radiation levels, increased fruit surface temperatures, and increased UV exposure that are higher than the conditions to which they are adapted. In our studies, we examined the effects of high fruit surface temperature, saturating photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR), and short-term UV exposure on chlorophyll fluorescence, respiration, and photosynthesis of fruit peel tissues from tropical and temperate fruit in a simulation of these acute environmental changes. All tropical fruits (citrus, macadamia, avocado, pineapple, and custard apple) and the apple cultivars ‘Gala’, ‘Gold Rush’, and ‘Granny Smith’ increased dark respiration (A0) when exposed to UV, suggesting that UV repair mechanisms were induced. The maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and the quantum efficiency of photosystem II (II) were unaffected, indicating no adverse effects on photosystem II (PSII). In contrast, ‘Braeburn’ apple had a reduced Fv/Fm with no increase in A0 on all sampling dates.There was a consistent pattern in all studies.When Fv/Fm was unaffected by UV treatment, A0 increased significantly. Conversely, when Fv/Fm was reduced by UV treatment, then A0 was unaffected. The pattern suggests that when UV repair mechanisms are effective, PSII is adequately protected, and that this protection occurs at the cost of higher respiration. However, when the UV repair mechanisms are ineffective, not only is PSII damaged, but there is additional short-term damage to the repair mechanisms, indicated by a lack of respiration to provide energy.
Ananas comosus, Annona cherimola, citrus, macadamia, Malus x domestica, Persea americana