Geology, ore facies and sulfur isotopes geochemistry of the Nudeh Besshi-type volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit, southwest Sabzevar basin, Iran
Maghfouri, S and Rastad, E and Mousivand, F and Lin, Y and Zaw, K, Geology, ore facies and sulfur isotopes geochemistry of the Nudeh Besshi-type volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit, southwest Sabzevar basin, Iran, Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 125 pp. 1-21. ISSN 1367-9120 (2016) [Refereed Article]
The southwest Sabzevar basin is placed in the southwestern part of a crustal domain known as the Sabzevar zone, at the north of Central Iranian microcontinent. This basin hosts abundant mineral deposits; particularly of the Mn exhalative and Cu-Zn volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) types. The evolution of this basin is governed by the Neo-tethys oceanic crust subduction beneath the Central Iranian microcontinent and by the resulting continental arc (Sanandaj-Sirjan) and back-arc (Sabzevar-Naien). This evolution followed two major sequences: (I) Lower Late Cretaceous Volcano-Sedimentary Sequence (LLCVSS), which is indicated by fine-grained siliciclastic sediments, gray basic coarse-grained different pyroclastic rocks and bimodal volcanism. During this stage, tuff-hosted stratiform, exhalative Mn deposits (Nudeh, Benesbourd, Ferizy and Goft), oxide Cu deposits (Garab and Ferizy) and Cu-Zn VMS (Nudeh, Chun and Lala) deposits formed. (II) Upper Late Cretaceous Sedimentary Dominated Sequence (ULCSS), including pelagic limestone, marly tuff, silty limestone and marl with minor andesitic tuff rocks. The economically most important Mn (Zakeri and Cheshmeh-sefid) deposits of Sabzevar zone occur within the marly tuff of this sequence. The Nudeh Cu–Zn volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit is situated in the LLCVSS. The host-rock of deposits consists of alkali olivine basalt flow and tuffaceous silty sandstone. Mineralization occurs as stratiform blanket-like and tabular orebodies. Based on ore body structure, mineralogy, and ore fabric, we recognize three different ore facies in the Nudeh deposit: (1) a stringer zone, consisting of a discordant mineralization of sulfides forming a stockwork of sulfide-bearing quartz veins cutting the footwall volcano-sedimentary rocks; (2) a massive ore, consisting of massive replacement pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite and Friedrichite with magnetite; (3) bedded ore, with laminated to disseminated pyrite, and chalcopyrite. Chloritization, silicification, sericitization and epidotization are the main wall-rock alterations; alteration intensity increases towards the stringer zone. The δ34S composition of the sulfides ranges from −1.5‰ to +3.69‰ with a general increase of δ34S ratios of massive ore facies to stockwork zone. The heavier values indicate that some of the sulfur was derived from seawater sulfate that was ultimately thermochemically reduced in deep hydrothermal reaction zones. Sulfur isotopes, along with sedimentological, textural, petrological, mineralogical, and geochemical evidences, suggest that this deposit should be classified as a Besshi-type VMS ore deposit.
Besshi-type VMS; Sulfur isotope; Late Cretaceous; Southwest Sabzevar basin; Iran