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The originals: the role and influence of the original signatories to the Antarctic Treaty


Haward, M, The originals: the role and influence of the original signatories to the Antarctic Treaty, Handbook on the Politics of Antarctica, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd., K Dodds, AD Hemmings, P Roberts (ed), Cheltenham. UK, pp. 232-240. ISBN 9781784717674 (2017) [Other Book Chapter]

Copyright Statement

Copyright 2017 Klaus Dodds, Alan D. Hemmings and Peder Roberts

DOI: doi:10.4337/9781784717681


Twelve states (Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics – USSR (now Russia), South Africa, the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States of America (USA)) signed the Antarctic Treaty at the conclusion of the Antarctic Conference in Washington in December 1959. The original signatories have remained influential actors in the system, and proudly promote this status. These states became Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties (ATCPs) by virtue of their status as original signatories under Article IX. The other Consultative Parties – now numbering seventeen – have to accede to the treaty and then gain consultative party status by ‘conducting substantial research activity there, such as the establishment of a scientific station or the despatch of a scientific expedition’. This leaves questions moot over the meaning of ‘during such times’ and ‘substantial research activity’ in Article IX (2) and how acceding states assess the level of scientific work required of the original signatories.

The original signatories have helped shape the development of what has become known as the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS). The majority of the original signatories have undertaken much of the ‘heavy lifting’ within the ATS, for example, the development of arrangements to address the protection of flora and fauna, the regulation of marine and mineral resources, environmental protection and the regulation of tourism. As a result the original signatory states have been active in developing administrative arrangements within the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings (ATCMs) and have had key roles in its Working Groups. Most significantly ‘the originals’ conduct a major proportion of the scientific effort and logistics on the continent.

Item Details

Item Type:Other Book Chapter
Keywords:Antarctic Treaty, diplomacy, Antarctica
Research Division:Human Society
Research Group:Political science
Research Field:International relations
Objective Division:Expanding Knowledge
Objective Group:Expanding knowledge
Objective Field:Expanding knowledge in human society
UTAS Author:Haward, M (Professor Marcus Haward)
ID Code:115073
Year Published:2017
Deposited By:Oceans and Cryosphere
Deposited On:2017-03-07
Last Modified:2018-12-14

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