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Pneumococcal vaccines for preventing pneumonia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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Walters, JA and Tang, JN and Poole, P and Wood-Baker, R, Pneumococcal vaccines for preventing pneumonia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, (1) Article CD001390. ISSN 1469-493X (2017) [Refereed Article]


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Copyright Statement

Copyright 2017 The Cochrane Collaboration

DOI: doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001390.pub4

Abstract

BACKGROUND: People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk of pneumococcal disease, especially pneumonia, as well as acute exacerbations with associated morbidity and healthcare costs.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy of injectable pneumococcal vaccination for preventing pneumonia in persons with COPD.

SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Airways COPD Trials Register and the databases CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase, using prespecified terms. Searches are current to November 2016.

SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCT) comparing injectable pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) or pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV) versus a control or alternative vaccine type in people with COPD.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures. For meta-analyses, we subgrouped studies by vaccine type.

MAIN RESULTS: For this update, we added five studies (606 participants), meaning that the review now includes a total of 12 RCTs involving 2171 participants with COPD. Average age of participants was 66 years, male participants accounted for 67% and mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was 1.2 L (five studies), 54% predicted (four studies). We assessed risks of selection, attrition and reporting bias as low, and risks of performance and detection bias as moderate.Compared with control, the vaccine group had a lower likelihood of developing community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) (odds ratio (OR) 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43 to 0.89; six studies, n = 1372; GRADE: moderate), but findings did not differ specifically for pneumococcal pneumonia (Peto OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.05 to 1.31; three studies, n = 1158; GRADE: low). The number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) (preventing one episode of CAP) was 21 (95% CI 15 to 74). Mortality from cardiorespiratory causes did not differ between vaccine and control groups (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.66; three studies, n = 888; GRADE: moderate), nor did all-cause mortality differ (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.40; five studies, n = 1053; GRADE: moderate). The likelihood of hospital admission for any cause, or for cardiorespiratory causes, did not differ between vaccine and control groups. Vaccination significantly reduced the likelihood of a COPD exacerbation (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.93; four studies, n = 446; GRADE: moderate). The NNTB to prevent a patient from experiencing an acute exacerbation was 8 (95% CI 5 to 58). Only one study (n = 181) compared the efficacy of different vaccine types - 23-valent PPV versus 7-valent PCV - and reported no differences for CAP, all-cause mortality, hospital admission or likelihood of a COPD exacerbation, but investigators described a greater likelihood of some mild adverse effects of vaccination with PPV-23.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Injectable polyvalent pneumococcal vaccination provides significant protection against community-acquired pneumonia, although no evidence indicates that vaccination reduced the risk of confirmed pneumococcal pneumonia, which was a relatively rare event. Vaccination reduced the likelihood of a COPD exacerbation, and moderate-quality evidence suggests the benefits of pneumococcal vaccination in people with COPD. Evidence was insufficient for comparison of different pneumococcal vaccine types.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Research Division:Medical and Health Sciences
Research Group:Cardiorespiratory Medicine and Haematology
Research Field:Respiratory Diseases
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions)
Objective Field:Respiratory System and Diseases (incl. Asthma)
Author:Walters, JA (Dr Julia Walters)
Author:Tang, JN (Ms Joanne Tang)
Author:Wood-Baker, R (Professor Richard Wood-Baker)
ID Code:114291
Year Published:2017
Deposited By:Medicine (Discipline)
Deposited On:2017-02-10
Last Modified:2017-05-11
Downloads:0

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