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Effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation for cardiovascular health outcomes


Veloudi, P and Jones, G and Sharman, JE, Effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation for cardiovascular health outcomes, Pulse, 4, (4) pp. 193-207. ISSN 2235-8676 (2016) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

Copyright 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel

DOI: doi:10.1159/000452742


There is a plausible physiological theory, supported by many observational studies, that vitamin D supplementation should be effective for improving cardiovascular end points, such as blood pressure (BP), large artery stiffness, atherosclerosis, endothelial function and clinical events. However, results from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have been inconsistent. In this review, we evaluated the evidence regarding the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation for cardiovascular surrogate and hard clinical end points. RCTs were assessed in terms of sample size, duration of supplementation, baseline vitamin D level inclusion criteria (i.e., absence of vitamin D deficiency), dosage of vitamin D and population under investigation. Forty-five RCTs were identified. Eight RCTs with BP and 6 RCTs with large artery stiffness as the end points were found to comply with guidelines for the optimal design of clinical trials evaluating nutrient effects. Only 2 of the RCTs with an optimal design were effective in decreasing BP with vitamin D supplementation, although these were of moderate sample size (<150) and very short duration (8 weeks for both), whilst no RCT was effective in reducing large artery stiffness. Similar results were observed for atherosclerotic and endothelial function markers as end points. Only 1 RCT reported cardiovascular events as an end point and found neither increased nor decreased incident cardiovascular events over 7 years of follow-up. In conclusion, results from published RCTs indicate that vitamin D supplementation is ineffective in improving cardiovascular health among various patient populations, including in the presence or absence of vitamin D deficiency.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:Vitamin D supplementation, Cardiovascular health, Randomized controlled trials, Blood pressure, large artery stiffness
Research Division:Biomedical and Clinical Sciences
Research Group:Cardiovascular medicine and haematology
Research Field:Cardiology (incl. cardiovascular diseases)
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Clinical health
Objective Field:Clinical health not elsewhere classified
UTAS Author:Veloudi, P (Mrs Penny Veloudi)
UTAS Author:Jones, G (Professor Graeme Jones)
UTAS Author:Sharman, JE (Professor James Sharman)
ID Code:113169
Year Published:2016
Deposited By:Menzies Institute for Medical Research
Deposited On:2016-12-14
Last Modified:2022-08-25

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