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Chronic periodontitis and smoking: Prevalence and dose-response relationship


Khan, S and Khalid, T and Awan, KH, Chronic periodontitis and smoking: Prevalence and dose-response relationship, Saudi Medical Journal, 37, (8) pp. 889-894. ISSN 0379-5284 (2016) [Refereed Article]


Copyright Statement

Copyright 2016 Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)

DOI: doi:10.15537/smj.2016.8.14223


Objectives: To determine the prevalence and dose-response relationship of chronic periodontitis among smokers in Pakistan.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study among participants seeking dental care in Karachi Medical and Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 443 participants with a mean age of 44.3 ( 6.5) participated in the study from April 2011 to December 2011. Males comprised 64.7%, and females comprised 35.2%. Participants were interviewed on social demographics and oral habits. Participants with shallow pockets (3.5-5.5 mm) and deep pockets (greater than 5.5 mm) were considered suffering from chronic periodontitis. The characteristics of participants were assessed using frequency distribution for categorical variables and mean (standard deviation) for continuous variables.

Results: Among 443 participants, smokers were distributed as 55.1% and non-smokers as 44.9%. Smoking was found to be significantly related to young adults (p<0.007), male gender (p<0.001), and lower education level (p<0.01). Overall prevalence of chronic periodontitis among smokers was estimated at 81.6%. Heavy smoking was found to have significantly high prevalence (p<0.001) and severity (p<0.001) of periodontitis as compared with moderate and light smokers. The multivariate unadjusted model depicted 3.5 times higher risk of chronic periodontitis among smokers (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Chronic periodontitis had a high prevalence among smokers. Heavy smoking was found to have a higher risk for having periodontitis.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:periodontal disease, smoking, oral health, tobacco
Research Division:Biomedical and Clinical Sciences
Research Group:Dentistry
Research Field:Periodontics
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Public health (excl. specific population health)
Objective Field:Dental health
UTAS Author:Khan, S (Dr Shahrukh Khan)
ID Code:111999
Year Published:2016
Web of Science® Times Cited:17
Deposited By:UTAS Centre for Rural Health
Deposited On:2016-10-19
Last Modified:2017-11-06
Downloads:210 View Download Statistics

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