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Vegetative reproduction and sexual life cycle of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum from Tasmania, Australia


Blackburn, SI and Hallegraeff, GM and Bolch, CJ, Vegetative reproduction and sexual life cycle of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum from Tasmania, Australia, Journal of Phycology, 25, (3) pp. 577-590. ISSN 0022-3646 (1989) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

Copyright 1989 Wiley

DOI: doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.1989.tb00264.x


The toxic, chain-forming dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum Graham was cultured from vegetative cells and benthic resting cysts isolated from estuarine waters in Tasmania, Australia. Rapidly dividing, log phase cultures formed long chains of up to 64 cells whereas stationary phase cultures were composed primarily of single cells (23-41 pm long, 27-36 pm wide). Vegetative growth (mean doubling time 3-4 days) was optimal at temperatures from 14.5-20 C, salinities of 23-34% and light irradiances of 50-300 μEm−2s−1.

The sexual life cycle of G. catenatum was easily induced in a nutrient-deficient medium, provided compatible opposite mating types were combined (heterothallism). Gamete fusion produced a large (59-73 μm long, 50-59 μm wide) biconical, posteriorly biflagellate planozygote (double longitudinal flagellum) which after several days lost one longitudinal flagellum and gradually became subspherical in shape. This older planozygote stage persisted for up to two weeks before encysting into a round, brown resting cyst (42-52 μm diam; hypnozygote) with microreticulate surface ornamentation. Resting cysts germinated after a dormancy period as short as two weeks under our culture conditions, resulting in a single, posteriorly biflagellate germling cell (planomeiocyte). This divided to form a chain of two cells, which subsequently re-established a vegetative population. Implications for the bloom dynamics of this toxic dinoflagellate, a causative organism of paralytic shellfish poisoning, are discussed.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:dinoflagellate, toxin, reproduction, lifecycle, Gymnodinium catenatum
Research Division:Biological Sciences
Research Group:Plant biology
Research Field:Phycology (incl. marine grasses)
Objective Division:Animal Production and Animal Primary Products
Objective Group:Fisheries - aquaculture
Objective Field:Fisheries - aquaculture not elsewhere classified
UTAS Author:Hallegraeff, GM (Professor Gustaaf Hallegraeff)
UTAS Author:Bolch, CJ (Associate Professor Christopher Bolch)
ID Code:111257
Year Published:1989
Web of Science® Times Cited:201
Deposited By:Ecology and Biodiversity
Deposited On:2016-09-06
Last Modified:2016-11-24

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