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Developing priority variables (“ecosystem Essential Ocean Variables” — eEOVs) for observing dynamics and change in Southern Ocean ecosystems

Citation

Constable, AJ and Costa, DP and Schofield, O and Newman, L and Urban Jr, ER and Fulton, EA and Melbourne-Thomas, J and Ballerini, T and Boyd, PW and Brandt, A and de la Mare, WK and Edwards, M and Eleaume, M and Emmerson, L and Fennel, K and Fielding, S and Griffiths, H and Gutt, J and Hindell, MA and Hoffman, EE and Jennings, S and La, HS and McCurdy, A and Mitchell, BG and Moltmann, T and Muelbert, M and Murphy, E and Press, AJ and Raymond, B and Reid, K and Reiss, C and Rice, J and Salter, I and Smith, DC and Song, S and Southwell, C and Swadling, K and Van de Putte, A and Willis, Z, Developing priority variables ('ecosystem Essential Ocean Variables' eEOVs) for observing dynamics and change in Southern Ocean ecosystems, Journal of Marine Systems, 161 pp. 26-41. ISSN 0924-7963 (2016) [Refereed Article]


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Copyright 2016 The Authors. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

DOI: doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2016.05.003

Abstract

Reliable statements about variability and change in marine ecosystems and their underlying causes are needed to report on their status and to guide management. Here we use the Framework on Ocean Observing (FOO) to begin developing ecosystem Essential Ocean Variables (eEOVs) for the Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS). An eEOV is a defined biological or ecological quantity, which is derived from field observations, and which contributes significantly to assessments of Southern Ocean ecosystems. Here, assessments are concerned with estimating status and trends in ecosystem properties, attribution of trends to causes, and predicting future trajectories. eEOVs should be feasible to collect at appropriate spatial and temporal scales and are useful to the extent that they contribute to direct estimation of trends and/or attribution, and/or development of ecological (statistical or simulation) models to support assessments. In this paper we outline the rationale, including establishing a set of criteria, for selecting eEOVs for the SOOS and develop a list of candidate eEOVs for further evaluation. Other than habitat variables, nine types of eEOVs for Southern Ocean taxa are identified within three classes: state (magnitude, genetic/species, size spectrum), predator–prey (diet, foraging range), and autecology (phenology, reproductive rate, individual growth rate, detritus). Most candidates for the suite of Southern Ocean taxa relate to state or diet. Candidate autecological eEOVs have not been developed other than for marine mammals and birds. We consider some of the spatial and temporal issues that will influence the adoption and use of eEOVs in an observing system in the Southern Ocean, noting that existing operations and platforms potentially provide coverage of the four main sectors of the region — the East and West Pacific, Atlantic and Indian. Lastly, we discuss the importance of simulation modelling in helping with the design of the observing system in the long term.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:ocean observing, Antarctica, Southern Ocean Observing System, essential variables, ecosystem change, monitoring systems, ecosystem management, indicators
Research Division:Biological Sciences
Research Group:Ecology
Research Field:Marine and Estuarine Ecology (incl. Marine Ichthyology)
Objective Division:Environment
Objective Group:Ecosystem Assessment and Management
Objective Field:Ecosystem Assessment and Management of Marine Environments
Author:Constable, AJ (Dr Andrew Constable)
Author:Newman, L (Dr Louise Newman)
Author:Fulton, EA (Dr Elizabeth Fulton)
Author:Melbourne-Thomas, J (Dr Jessica Melbourne-Thomas)
Author:Boyd, PW (Professor Philip Boyd)
Author:Emmerson, L (Dr Louise Emmerson)
Author:Hindell, MA (Professor Mark Hindell)
Author:Moltmann, T (Mr Tim Moltmann)
Author:Press, AJ (Dr Tony Press)
Author:Raymond, B (Dr Ben Raymond)
Author:Smith, DC (Mr David Smith)
Author:Southwell, C (Dr Colin Southwell)
Author:Swadling, K (Dr Kerrie Swadling)
ID Code:109979
Year Published:2016
Deposited By:CRC-Antarctic Climate & Ecosystems
Deposited On:2016-07-10
Last Modified:2017-03-08
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