Simpson, S and Tan, H and Otahal, P and Taylor, B and Ponsonby, AL and Lucas, RM and Blizzard, L and Valery, PC and Lechner-Scott, J and Shaw, C and Williams, D and van der Mei, I, Ausimmune/AusLong Investigators Group, Anxiety, depression and fatigue at 5-year review following CNS demyelination, Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 134, (6) pp. 403-413. ISSN 0001-6314 (2016) [Refereed Article]
Copyright 2016 John Wiley & Sons
METHODS: Cases with a FCD were recruited soon after diagnosis and followed annually thereafter. A variety of environmental, behavioural and clinical covariates were measured at five-year review. Anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale (HADS), and fatigue by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS).
RESULTS: Of the 236 cases, 40.2% had clinical anxiety (median HADS-A: 6.0), 16.0% had clinical depression (median HADS-D: 3.0), and 41.3% had clinical fatigue (median FSS: 4.56). The co-occurrence of all three symptoms was 3.76 times greater than expectation. Younger age, higher disability, concussion or other disease diagnosis were independently associated with a higher anxiety score; male sex, higher disability, being unemployed, less physical activity, and antidepressant and/or anxiolytic-sedative medication use were independently associated with a higher depression score. Higher disability, immunomodulatory medication use, other disease diagnosis and anxiolytic-sedative medication use were independently associated with having fatigue, while female sex, higher BMI, having had a concussion, being unemployed and higher disability were associated with a higher fatigue score.
CONCLUSION: These results support previous findings of the commonality of anxiety, depression and fatigue in established MS and extend this to post-FCD and early MS cases. The clustering of the three symptoms indicates that they may share common antecedents.
|Item Type:||Refereed Article|
|Keywords:||anxiety, depression, fatigue, first demyelinating event, multiple sclerosis, prevalence|
|Research Division:||Biomedical and Clinical Sciences|
|Research Field:||Central nervous system|
|Objective Group:||Clinical health|
|Objective Field:||Clinical health not elsewhere classified|
|UTAS Author:||Simpson, S (Dr Steve Simpson JR)|
|UTAS Author:||Tan, H (Dr Haiping Tan)|
|UTAS Author:||Otahal, P (Mr Petr Otahal)|
|UTAS Author:||Taylor, B (Professor Bruce Taylor)|
|UTAS Author:||Blizzard, L (Professor Leigh Blizzard)|
|UTAS Author:||van der Mei, I (Professor Ingrid van der Mei)|
|Web of Science® Times Cited:||34|
|Deposited By:||Menzies Institute for Medical Research|
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