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Deficiency in Th2 Cytokine Responses Exacerbate Orthopoxvirus Infection

Citation

Sakala, IG and Chaudri, G and Eldi, P and Buller, RM and Karupiah, G, Deficiency in Th2 Cytokine Responses Exacerbate Orthopoxvirus Infection, PloS one, 10, (3) Article e0118685. ISSN 1932-6203 (2015) [Refereed Article]


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Copyright Statement

Copyright: 2015 Sakala et al. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/1371/journal.pone.0118685

DOI: doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0118685

Abstract

Ectromelia virus (ECTV) causes mousepox in mice, a disease very similar to smallpox in humans. ECTV and variola virus (VARV), the agent of smallpox, are closely related orthopoxviruses. Mousepox is an excellent small animal model to study the genetic and immunologic basis for resistance and susceptibility of humans to smallpox. Resistance to mousepox is dependent on a strong polarized type 1 immune response, associated with robust natural killer (NK) cell, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) responses. In contrast, ECTV-susceptible mice generate a type 2 response, associated with weak NK cell, CTL and IFN-γ responses but robust IL-4 responses. Nonetheless, susceptible strains infected with mutant ECTV lacking virus-encoded IFN-γ binding protein (vIFN- γbp) (ECTV-IFN-γbpΔ) control virus replication through generation of type 1 response. Since the IL-4/IL-13/STAT-6 signaling pathways polarize type 2/T helper 2 (Th2) responses with a corresponding suppression of IFN-γ production, we investigated whether the combined absence of vIFN-γbp, and one or more host genes involved in Th2 response development, influence generation of protective immunity. Most mutant mouse strains infected with wild-type (WT) virus succumbed to disease more rapidly than WT animals. Conversely, the disease outcome was significantly improved in WT mice infected with ECTV-IFN-γbpΔ but absence of IL-4/IL-13/STAT-6 signaling pathways did not provide any added advantage. Deficiency in IL-13 or STAT-6 resulted in defective CTL responses, higher mortality rates and accelerated deaths. Deficiencies in IL-4/IL-13/STAT-6 signaling pathways significantly reduced the numbers of IFN-γ producing CD4 and CD8 T cells, indicating an absence of a switch to a Th1-like response. Factors contributing to susceptibility or resistance to mousepox are far more complex than a balance between Th1 and Th2 responses.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:Th1/Th2 cytokines, CD8 T cells, NK cells, antiviral immunity
Research Division:Medical and Health Sciences
Research Group:Immunology
Research Field:Immunology not elsewhere classified
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions)
Objective Field:Immune System and Allergy
Author:Karupiah, G (Associate Professor Guna Karupiah)
ID Code:107780
Year Published:2015
Web of Science® Times Cited:2
Deposited By:Medicine (Discipline)
Deposited On:2016-03-23
Last Modified:2017-11-07
Downloads:52 View Download Statistics

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