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Confronting Expectation in Grade 4: Tossing Two Coins


Watson, J and English, L, Confronting Expectation in Grade 4: Tossing Two Coins, Jornal Internacional de Estudos em Educacao Matematica , 8, (3) pp. 1-30. ISSN 2176-5634 (2015) [Refereed Article]


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This study focuses on the experiences of 91 Grade 4 students who had been introduced to expectation and variation through trials of tossing a single coin many times. They were then given two coins to toss simultaneously and asked to state their expectation of the chances for the possible outcomes, in a similar manner expressed for a single coin. This paper documents the journey of the students in discovering that generally their initial expectation for two coins was incorrect and that despite variation, a large number of tosses could confirm a new expectation.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:Probability Grade 4 coins
Research Division:Education
Research Group:Curriculum and pedagogy
Research Field:Mathematics and numeracy curriculum and pedagogy
Objective Division:Education and Training
Objective Group:Learner and learning
Objective Field:Learner and learning not elsewhere classified
UTAS Author:Watson, J (Professor Jane Watson)
ID Code:107079
Year Published:2015
Funding Support:Australian Research Council (DP120100158)
Deposited By:Faculty of Education
Deposited On:2016-03-03
Last Modified:2016-08-15
Downloads:93 View Download Statistics

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