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The Development and Validation of the Osteoporosis Prevention and Awareness Tool (OPAAT) in Malaysia


Toh, LS and Lai, PS and Wu, DB and Wong, KT and Low, BY and Anderson, C, The Development and Validation of the Osteoporosis Prevention and Awareness Tool (OPAAT) in Malaysia, PloS one, 10, (5) Article e0124553. ISSN 1932-6203 (2015) [Refereed Article]

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Copyright Statement

Copyright: 2015 Toh et al. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)

DOI: doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0124553


OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate Osteoporosis Prevention and Awareness Tool (OPAAT) in Malaysia.

METHODS: The OPAAT was modified from the Malaysian Osteoporosis Knowledge Tool and developed from an exploratory study on patients. Face and content validity was established by an expert panel. The OPAAT consists of 30 items, categorized into three domains. A higher score indicates higher knowledge level. English speaking non-osteoporotic postmenopausal women ≥ 50 years of age and pharmacists were included in the study.

RESULTS: A total of 203 patients and 31 pharmacists were recruited. Factor analysis extracted three domains. Flesch reading ease was 59.2. The mean SD accuracy rate was 0.60 0.22 (range: 0.26-0.94). The Cronbach's α for each domain ranged from 0.286-0.748. All items were highly correlated (Spearman's rho: 0.761-0.990, p < 0.05), with no significant change in the overall test-retest scores, indicating that OPAAT has achieved stable reliability. Pharmacists had higher knowledge score than patients (80.9 8.7 vs 63.6 17.4, p < 0.001), indicating that the OPAAT was able to discriminate between the knowledge levels of pharmacists and patients.

CONCLUSION: The OPAAT was found to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing patient's knowledge about osteoporosis and its prevention in Malaysia. The OPAAT can be used to identify individuals in need of osteoporosis educational intervention.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:osteoporosis, knowledge, tool, screening, prevention, postmenopausal
Research Division:Biomedical and Clinical Sciences
Research Group:Pharmacology and pharmaceutical sciences
Research Field:Clinical pharmacy and pharmacy practice
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Evaluation of health and support services
Objective Field:Health education and promotion
UTAS Author:Toh, LS (Dr Li Shean Toh)
ID Code:106619
Year Published:2015
Web of Science® Times Cited:13
Deposited By:Pharmacy
Deposited On:2016-02-16
Last Modified:2017-11-02
Downloads:209 View Download Statistics

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