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Confusion reigns? A review of marine megafauna interactions with tidal-stream environments

Citation

Benjamins, S and Dale, AC and Hastie, G and Waggitt, JJ and Lea, MA and Scott, B and Wilson, B, Confusion reigns? A review of marine megafauna interactions with tidal-stream environments, Oceanography and Marine Biology, 53 pp. 1-54. ISSN 0078-3218 (2015) [Refereed Article]


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Copyright Statement

© R. N. Hughes. D. J. Hughes, I. P. Smith, and A. C. Dale

DOI: doi:10.1201/b18733-2

Abstract

Energetic tidal-stream environments are characterized by frequent, variable, yet broadly predictable currents containing ephemeral flow structures that change across multiple spatio-temporal scales. Marine mammals and seabirds (marine megafauna) often frequent such sites, but increasingly these locations are targeted for renewable energy extraction; little is known, however, about how marine megafauna use these habitats and any potential impacts. This review aims to summarize existing knowledge concerning usage by marine megafauna and considers their wider ecological significance. The review describes the physical processes occurring within tidal-stream environments that generate the oceanographic structures of potential ecological relevance, such as jets, boils, eddies, and fronts. Important physical features of these environments include lateral transport, turbulence-driven 3-dimensional flow structure at various spatial scales, and upwelling. Foraging opportunities appear to be the main attractor to marine megafauna, likely driven by enhanced prey abundance, vulnerability, or diversity. Many megafauna associate with particular tidal phases, current strengths, and flow structures, most likely in response to tidally forced prey distribution and behaviours. Occupancy patterns, distributions, and foraging behaviours are discussed. Local site fidelity by ‘tidal-stream experts’ suggest non-uniform conservation risks within larger metapopulations. The review discusses data-gathering techniques and associated challenges, the significance of scaling, and information gaps.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:ephemeral flow structures, tidal, eddies, ephemeral, coastal, dynamic
Research Division:Environmental Sciences
Research Group:Environmental Science and Management
Research Field:Wildlife and Habitat Management
Objective Division:Environment
Objective Group:Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity
Objective Field:Marine Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity
Author:Lea, MA (Associate Professor Mary-Anne Lea)
ID Code:106449
Year Published:2015
Web of Science® Times Cited:14
Deposited By:IMAS Research and Education Centre
Deposited On:2016-02-10
Last Modified:2016-05-24
Downloads:0

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