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The roles of organochlorine contamnants and fisheries bycatch in recent population changes in black-footed and Laysan albatrosses in the North Pacific Ocean

Citation

Ludwig, JP and Summer, CL and Auman, HJ and Gauger, V and Bromley, D and Giesy, JP and Rolland, R and Colborn, T, The roles of organochlorine contamnants and fisheries bycatch in recent population changes in black-footed and Laysan albatrosses in the North Pacific Ocean, Albatross biology and conservation, Surrey Beatty, G Robertson, R Gales (ed), Chipping Norton, pp. 225-238. ISBN 9780949324825 (1998) [Research Book Chapter]


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Abstract

Organochlorine contaminants were measured in Laysan and Black-footed Albatrosses nesting at Midway Atoll, Hawaiian Leeward Islands. Samples from Black-footed Albatrosses were two to three times more contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs) and the DDT group chemicals than were samples from Laysan Albatrosses. Black-footed Albatrosses were sufficiently contaminated to be at slight risk from eggshell thinning and subtle embryonic effects that increase risks of terata and decrease egg viability; observed hatching success was lower and egg crushing greater in Black-footed Albatrosses than Laysan Albatrosses. Organochlorine contamination probably reduced productivity by 2-3% in the Black-footed Albatross population. No contaminant effects were found in Laysan Albatrosses. Estimates of the effect of adult loss and widowing from fisheries bycatch revealed productivity reductions of 17.6% in Laysan Albatrosses and 27.15% in Black-footed Albatrosses, confirming the serious impact of fisheries on these species of albatrosses. Black-footed Albatross census data indicate a recent decrease in populations since the 1980s. Bycatch accounts for almost all (90%) of the recent productivity decrease in this population and contaminants were believed to cause about 10%. The Black-footed Albatross population is expected to decrease slowly owing to these mortalities. The Laysan Albatross population demonstrated no contaminant-related effects, and is increasing slowly in spite of increased bycatch in the last 20 years.

Item Details

Item Type:Research Book Chapter
Keywords:albatross, organochlorines, PCBs, dioxins, furans, TCDD-EQs, DDT, bycatch, fisheries, contaminants, seabirds
Research Division:Biological Sciences
Research Group:Ecology
Research Field:Population Ecology
Objective Division:Expanding Knowledge
Objective Group:Expanding Knowledge
Objective Field:Expanding Knowledge in the Biological Sciences
Author:Auman, HJ (Dr Heidi Auman)
ID Code:106168
Year Published:1998
Deposited By:IMAS Research and Education Centre
Deposited On:2016-02-01
Last Modified:2016-05-16
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