Development and evaluation of electromembrane extraction across a hollow polymer inclusion membrane
Mamat, NA and See, HH, Development and evaluation of electromembrane extraction across a hollow polymer inclusion membrane, Journal of Chromatography A, 1406 pp. 34-39. ISSN 0021-9673 (2015) [Refereed Article]
In this work, a new variation of the electromembrane extraction (EME) approach employing a hollow polymer inclusion membrane (HPIM) was developed. In this method, a HPIM was prepared by casting a solution of the desired proportions of cellulose acetate (CTA), tris(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (TEHP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) in dichloromethane on glass capillary tubing. Three basic drugs namely amphetamine, methamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) were selected as model analytes to evaluate the extraction performance of this new approach. The drugs were extracted from human plasma samples, through a 20 μm thickness HPIM, to an aqueous acceptor solution inside the lumen of the hollow membrane. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated in detail. Under the optimized conditions, enrichment factors in the range of 97–103-fold were obtained from 3 mL of sample solution with a 10 min extraction time and an applied voltage of 300 V across the HPIM. The detection limits of the method for the three drugs were in the range of 1.0–2.5 ng/mL (at a signal/noise ratio of three), with relative standard deviations of between 6.4% and 7.9%. When the method was applied to spiked plasma samples, the relative recoveries ranged from 99.2% to 100.8%. Enrichment factors of 103, 99 and 97 were obtained for amphetamine, methamphetamine, and MDMA, respectively. A comparison was also made between the newly developed approach and EME using supported liquid membranes (SLM) as well as standard sample preparation methods (liquid–liquid extraction) used by the Toxicology Unit, Department of Chemistry, Malaysia.