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Closing the gap on causal processes of infection risk from cross-sectional data: structural equation models to understand infection and co-infection


Carver, S and Beatty, JA and Troyer, RM and Harris, RL and Stutzman-Rodriguez, K and Barrs, VR and Chan, CC and Tasker, S and Lappin, MR and VandeWoude, S, Closing the gap on causal processes of infection risk from cross-sectional data: structural equation models to understand infection and co-infection, Parasites and Vectors, 8, (1) Article 658. ISSN 1756-3305 (2015) [Refereed Article]

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2015 Carver et al. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4)

DOI: doi:10.1186/s13071-015-1274-7



Epidemiological studies of disease exposure risk are frequently based on observational, cross-sectional data, and use statistical approaches as crucial tools for formalising causal processes and making predictions of exposure risks. However, an acknowledged limitation of traditional models is that the inferred relationships are correlational, cannot easily distinguish direct from indirect determinants of disease risk, and are often considerable simplifications of complex interrelationships. This may be particularly important when attempting to infer causality in patterns of co-infection through pathogen-facilitation.


We describe analyses of cross-sectional data using structural equation models (SEMs), a contemporary advancement on traditional regression approaches, based on our study system of feline gammaherpesvirus (FcaGHV1) in domestic cats.


SEMs strongly supported a latent (host phenotype) variable associated with FcaGHV1 exposure and co-infection risk, suggesting these individuals are simply more likely to become infected with multiple pathogens. However, indications of pathogen-covariance (potential facilitation) were also variably detected: potentially among FcaGHV1, Bartonella spp and Mycoplasma spp.


Our models suggest multiple exposures are primarily driven by host phenotypic traits, such as aggressive male phenotypes, and secondarily by pathogen-pathogen interactions. The results of this study demonstrate the application of SEMs to understanding epidemiological processes using observational data, and could be used more widely as a complementary tool to understand complex cross-sectional information in a wide variety of disciplines.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:disease, felid, cat, pathogen, exposure, transmission
Research Division:Biological Sciences
Research Group:Evolutionary biology
Research Field:Host-parasite interactions
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Public health (excl. specific population health)
Objective Field:Disease distribution and transmission (incl. surveillance and response)
UTAS Author:Carver, S (Associate Professor Scott Carver)
UTAS Author:Harris, RL (Miss Rachel Harris)
ID Code:105639
Year Published:2015
Web of Science® Times Cited:13
Deposited By:Zoology
Deposited On:2016-01-12
Last Modified:2018-03-15
Downloads:120 View Download Statistics

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