McAuley, KA and Smith, KJ and Taylor, RW and McLay, RT and Williams, SM and Mann, JI, Long-term effects of popular dietary approaches on weight loss and features of insulin resistance, International Journal of Obesity: and Related Metabolic Disorders, 30, (2) pp. 342-349. ISSN 0307-0565 (2006) [Refereed Article]
Copyright 2006 Nature Publishing Group
Objective: High-carbohydrate (HC)–high-fibre diets are recommended for weight loss and for treating and preventing diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We report a randomised trial comparing high-fat (HF) and high-protein (HP) diets with the conventional approach.
Research design and methods: A total of 93 overweight insulin-resistant women received advice following randomisation to HF, HP or HC dietary regimes, to achieve weight loss followed by weight maintenance over 12 months. Weight, body composition and measures of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were investigated.
Results: Retention rates were 93% for HP and 75% for HC and HF. Features of the metabolic syndrome improved in all groups during the first 6 months, to a greater extent on HF and HP than an HC. During the second 6 months the HF group had increases in waist circumference (mean difference 4.4 cm (95% CI 3.0, 5.8)), fat mass (2.3 kg (1.5, 3.1)), triglycerides (0.28 mmol/l (0.09, 0.46)) and 2 h glucose (0.70 mmol/l (0.22, 1.18)). Overall there was substantial sustained improvement in waist circumference, triglycerides and insulin in the HP group and sustained but more modest changes on HC. Dietary compliance at 12 months was poor in all groups.
Conclusions: HP and HC approaches appear to be appropriate options for insulin-resistant individuals. When recommending HP diets appropriate composition of dietary fat must be ensured. HC diet recommendations must include advice regarding appropriate high-fibre, low glycaemic index foods.
|Item Type:||Refereed Article|
|Keywords:||high protein diet; high carbohydrate diet; high fat diet; randomised controlled trial; insulin resistance; weight loss; lipids|
|Research Division:||Medical and Health Sciences|
|Research Group:||Nutrition and Dietetics|
|Research Field:||Public Nutrition Intervention|
|Objective Group:||Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health)|
|Objective Field:||Preventive Medicine|
|Author:||Smith, KJ (Dr Kylie Smith)|
|Web of Science® Times Cited:||87|
|Deposited By:||Menzies Institute for Medical Research|
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