Mooring arrangement design to minimise berthed ship motions due to a passing ship
Denehy, SP and Duffy, JT and Ranmuthugala, D and Renilson, MR, Mooring arrangement design to minimise berthed ship motions due to a passing ship, Proceedings of the Pacific International Maritime Conference 2015, 6-8 October, Sydney Exhibition Centre, Glebe Island, Sydney, pp. 1-15. (2015) [Refereed Conference Paper]
Ships at berth range on their moorings due to forces and moments imparted by passing
ships. This can cause large mooring line and fender loads and in extreme cases can result
in damage to mooring infrastructure and dangerous situations for crew and passengers.
Berthed ship motions also influence loading/unloading procedures and can reduce the
efficiency of the berth. Therefore understanding the berthed ship – passing ship
interactions is important for the safe and efficient design and operation of ports.
The berthed ship motions are dependent on the form and magnitude of the interaction
forces and moments, which are significantly influenced by the bathymetry around the
berthed and passing ships. In general, a ship berthed in a narrow channel would experience
greater surge force and a lower sway force and yaw moment compared to an equivalent
case in a wider channel. Designing the mooring arrangement to minimise the berthed ship
motions due to a passing ship is advantageous to increase berth efficiency, reduce loads on
mooring infrastructure and increase safety for crew and passengers.
This paper presents interaction forces and moments measured on a berthed ship due to a
passing ship from physical scale model experiments conducted at the Australian Maritime
College’s Model Test Basin facility. Two cases are presented that represent a berthed ship
in a wide channel, where bank effects can be considered negligible and in a narrower
channel, where bank effects are significant. The results from the model scale experiments
were scaled to represent a full scale scenario and used as input to a numerical simulation
model to predict the berthed ship motions and mooring loads experienced by a berthed
ship due to a passing ship. The simulations were conducted using a generic mooring
arrangement. Additional mooring arrangements were tested to quantify the effect of initial
mooring line pretension and mooring line configuration on the maximum safe passing ship
speed based on selected safety criteria. The results from the numerical simulations
demonstrated the advantages of increased pretension and designing the mooring
arrangement to suit the bathymetry around the berthed ship.