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Shade Provision for Toddlers at Swimming Pools in Melbourne


Gies, P and Makin, J and Dobbinson, S and Javorniczky, J and Henderson, S and Guilfoyle, R and Lock, J, Shade Provision for Toddlers at Swimming Pools in Melbourne, Photochemistry and Photobiology, 89, (4) pp. 968-973. ISSN 0031-8655 (2013) [Refereed Article]

Copyright Statement

2013 The American Society of Photobiology and Commonwealth of Australia

DOI: doi:10.1111/php.12078


This study assessed the UVR protection provided by shade structures over toddler pools at swimming pool centers in Melbourne. The UVR protection was measured using a combination of UV sensitive polysulfone film to derive an average value during the middle of the day (12 P.M.) and handheld UV meters to derive the time variability in UV protection between 11 A.M. and 3 P.M. The amount of UVR protection provided by the shade structures depended upon a number of factors such as location, size, and materials used, but generally ranged from a protection factor (PF) of 2 to ~ 16. The higher PFs were generally for larger structures or where the shade had other structures nearby. The handheld UV meter measurements showed the UV protection varied with position under the shade structure as well as with time of day. While provision of shade structures is becoming more widespread around Australia, improving the shade availability at the pool centers overall, the application of recommendations regarding the provision of shade has been followed to a varying degree by many of the pools visited in this study. In many cases, continued further improvements can be made to provide more adequate protection and further reduce UV exposures.

Item Details

Item Type:Refereed Article
Keywords:Skin cancer, UV radiation, sun protection, children
Research Division:Health Sciences
Research Group:Health services and systems
Research Field:Health services and systems not elsewhere classified
Objective Division:Health
Objective Group:Public health (excl. specific population health)
Objective Field:Behaviour and health
UTAS Author:Makin, J (Ms Jen Makin)
ID Code:103572
Year Published:2013
Web of Science® Times Cited:12
Deposited By:Menzies Institute for Medical Research
Deposited On:2015-10-16
Last Modified:2017-11-04

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